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Category Archives: Missouri Stem Cells

Missouri S&T hosts first in series of national critical minerals workshops – Missouri S&T News and Research

Posted: July 21, 2021 at 2:00 am

What are critical minerals, where do we find them, and why are they considered critical? Leading critical-minerals experts from across the country will answer these questions and more during a virtual workshop hosted by Missouri S&T Aug. 2-3. The workshop will provide insight and answers to issues surrounding materials such as cobalt for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles, germanium for transistors, tellurium for solar cells and rare earth elements for magnets and electronics.

The term critical minerals describes commodities whose unreliable supply threatens our nations economy and defense, says workshop organizer Dr. Marek Locmelis, assistant professor of geology and geophysics at Missouri S&T. The critical-minerals discussion cuts across a variety of disciplines, from mining and geosciences to public policy to environmental considerations. Important concerns are sustainability, ethical and responsible sourcing, and research for compounds that could replace critical minerals.

Missouri S&T will host eight keynote presenters:

Keynote presentations will address several topics: supply chains, global politics, domestic sourcing and production, recycling, and reprocessing. The workshop will also address the illicit critical-mineral economy, a topic of increasing urgency as critical minerals are sometimes unethically mined for example, using child labor and human trafficking and illegally marketed, similar to issues associated with conflict diamonds.

The workshop will also feature breakout sessions where participants will discuss research needs in areas related to the keynote presentations. The discussions can be used to inform Congress and develop federal funding initiatives.

The workshop is funded through a grant from the National Science Foundation and is the first in a planned series of national conversations about critical minerals. The workshops will bring together representatives from higher education, industry and government to help spur action and disseminate research on critical minerals.

We are grateful for the NSFs support for this crucial topic, says Locmelis. We will continue the discussions during an in-person workshop on the Missouri S&T campus in mid-2022. Because the critical-mineral challenge will stay with us for decades, we look forward to developing the workshop into a regular series of meetings in the future.

In addition to Locmelis, workshop organizers include Dr. Michael Moats, professor and interim chair of materials science and engineering; Dr. Kwame Awuah-Offei, interim director of mining and explosives engineering; Dr. Lana Alagha, associate professor of mining engineering; Dr. Mark Fitch, assistant chair and associate professor of civil, environmental and architectural engineering; Dr. Alanna Krolikowski, assistant professor of history and political science; and Dr. Angela Lueking, associate dean for research in the College of Engineering and Computing at Missouri S&T.

The workshop is open to anyone who is interested in critical minerals. For more information or to register, visit criticalminerals.mst.edu/.

About Missouri University of Science and Technology

Missouri University of Science and Technology (Missouri S&T) is a STEM-focused research university of over 7,600 students and part of the four-campus University of Missouri System. Located in Rolla, Missouri, Missouri S&T offers 101 different degree programs in 40 areas of study and is ranked by CollegeFactual as the best public university to study engineering. For more information about Missouri S&T, visit http://www.mst.edu.

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The race for a steak grown in the laboratory – Techno EA

Posted: January 12, 2020 at 8:55 am

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In 2013, the worlds first burger was cooked in butter from a laboratory and eaten at a brilliant press conference. The burger cost 215,000 (at the time $ 330,000) and despite all the media razzmatazz, the tasters were polite but not overly impressed. Close to meat, but not so juicy, said a food critic.

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Still, this one burger, which Google co-founder, Sergey Brin paid for, was the earliest use of a technique called cell culture to make edible meat products from scratch no dead animals are required. Cellular agriculture, the products of which are known as cultivated or laboratory-grown meat, builds muscle tissue from a handful of cells taken from an animal. These cells are then grown in a bioreactor on a scaffold and fed with a special nutrient solution.

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Just over five years later, startups around the world are trying to produce laboratory-grown meat that tastes as good as the traditional way and costs about as much.

You are already catching up: vegetable-based meat, which consists of a mixture of non-animal products that mimic the taste and consistency of real meat, is already on the market. The biggest name in this field: Impossible Foods, whose faux meat is sold in more than 5,000 restaurants and fast food chains in the USA and Asia and is expected to be available in supermarkets later this year. Impossibles team of over 100 researchers uses techniques such as gas chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify the volatile molecules released during the cooking of meat.

The key to their special formula is the oxygen-carrying molecule heme, which contains iron, which gives meat its color and metallic taste. Instead of using meat, Impossible uses genetically modified yeasts to make a version of heme that is found in the roots of certain plants.

Impossible has some competitors, especially Beyond Meat, that use pea protein (among other things) to replicate minced meat. The product is sold in supermarket chains such as Tesco in the UK and Whole Foods in the USA in addition to real meat and chicken. Both Impossible and Beyond released new, improved versions of their burgers in mid-January.

In contrast, none of the meat startups bred in the laboratory have yet announced a launch date for their first commercial product. But if that happens some claim it will be at the end of this year the laboratorys approach could turn the traditional meat industry upside down.

I suspect that cultured meat proteins can do things that vegetable proteins cannot in terms of taste, nutrition, and performance, says Isha Datar, director of New Harvest, an organization that funds research into cellular Agriculture helps. Datar, cell biologist and member of the MIT Media Lab, believes that meat cultures are more likely to be more nutritionally functional and functional than real meat. The idea is that a die-hard carnivore (like me) may not feel so upset about giving up the real thing.

Dingding Hu

You might ask, why would anyone want that? The answer is that our meat consumption habits are literally unsustainable.

Livestock breeding already contributes around 15% to global greenhouse gas emissions. (You may have heard that cows would be the third largest emitter in the world as a country.) A quarter of the worlds ice-free land is used for grazing cows and a third of the acreage is used for growing food. A growing population will make things worse. It is estimated that a population of 10 billion people is expected to eat 70% more meat by 2050. The greenhouse gases from food production will even increase by 92%.

In January, a commission of 37 scientists at The Lancet reported that the harmful effects of meat are not only a global risk to people and the planet, but also to our health. In October 2018, a study in Nature found that we would need to change our diet significantly in order not to irreparably destroy our planets natural resources.

Without changes towards a more plant-based diet, says Marco Springmann, a researcher for ecological sustainability at Oxford University and main author of the nature paper, there is little chance of avoiding dangerous climate changes.

The good news is that more and more people are rethinking what they eat. A recent Nielsen report found that sales of plant-based foods to replace animal products increased by 20% in 2018 compared to the previous year. Veganism, which not only avoids meat, but also products that come from greenhouse gas-emitting dairy cattle, is now considered to be relatively widespread.

That doesnt necessarily mean more vegans. A recent Gallup survey found that the number of people in the United States who claim to be vegan has changed little since 2012, at only about 3%. Regardless, the Americans eat less meat, even if they dont cut it out entirely.

Ulma Valeti (center), CEO of Memphis Meats, and Nicholas Genovese (right), chief science officer, watch a chef prepare one of their creations.

Memphis meat

Investors are betting large sums that this dynamic will continue. Startups like MosaMeat (co-founded by Mark Post, the scientist behind the 215,000 burger), Memphis Meats, Supermeat, Just and Finless Foods have all raised a lot of venture capital. The first step now is to bring a tasty product onto the market at an acceptable cost.

Eric Schulze, Vice President of Product and Regulation at Memphis Meats, sees his product as a complement to the meat industry. With our rich cultural background, we offer a new innovation that fits into our growing list of sustainable food traditions, he says. We see ourselves as a and not or solution to help feed a growing world.

The traditional meat industry does not see it that way. The National Cattlemens Beef Association in the United States calls these new approaches repellent as wrong meat. In August 2018, Missouri passed a law prohibiting the labeling of such alternative products as meat. Only food that comes from the harvest of cattle or poultry is allowed to have the word meat on the label in any form. Violation of this law can result in a fine or even a one-year prison sentence.

The alternative meat industry is fighting back. The Good Food Institute, which advocates regulations that favor plant-based and laboratory-grown meat, has partnered with Tofurky (manufacturer of a tofu-based meat substitute since the 1980s), the American Civil Liberties Union, and the Animal Legal Defense Fund repeal the law. Jessica Almy, the director of the institute, says that existing law is nonsensical and an insult to the principle of free speech. The idea behind the law is to make vegetable meat less attractive and to put farm meat at a disadvantage when it comes to the market, she says.

Almy is confident that her case will be successful and expects an injunction to come soon. But the Battle of Missouri is just the beginning of a battle that could take years. In February 2018, the U.S. Cattlemens Association issued a petition calling on the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to pass a similar federal law.

We have to change our diet so as not to destroy the planet.

Traditional meat industry groups have also been very vocal about how to regulate meat and meat on a plant basis. Last summer, a group of the largest agricultural organizations in the United States (nicknamed The Barnyard) wrote to President Trump asking for the certainty that the USDA will oversee farmed meat to ensure level playing field (the USDA needs tougher) and be more stringent) than the Food and Drug Administration.)

Finally, in November 2018, the USDA and FDA issued a joint statement announcing that the two regulators would share responsibility for monitoring laboratory-grown meat.

Some farmed startups claim that this regulatory confusion is the only thing holding them back. One company, Just, plans to launch a ground chicken this year and has partnered with a Japanese cattle breeding company to produce a Wagyu beef product from cells in the laboratory. Managing Director is Josh Tetrick, who previously founded the controversial startup Hampton Creek, Justs ancestor. (The FDA had previously banned the company from calling the product mayonnaise because it contained no eggs.) Talk to Tetrick, a bullish, confident young man, and youll get a feel for the drive and excitement behind the alternative meat market , The only (limit) for the start, he says, is regulatory.

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That is optimistic to say the least. The laboratory meat movement is still facing major technical hurdles. One of them is that the so-called fetal bovine serum is required for the production of the product. FBS is harvested from fetuses taken from pregnant cows during slaughter. This is an obvious problem for an allegedly cruelty-free product. FBS is also very expensive. It is used in the biopharmaceutical industry and in basic cellular research, but only in small quantities. However, cultivated meat requires large amounts. All laboratory meat start-ups have to use less of it or eliminate it entirely to make their products cheap enough. Last year, Finless Foods (aiming to make a fish-free version of bluefin tuna) reported that the amount of FBS needed to grow its cells had halved. And Schulze says the Memphis Meats team is working on completely cutting it out.

However, according to Datar, there are other issues with New Harvest. She says we still dont understand the basic processes well enough. While we have a fairly deep understanding of animals used in medical research, such as laboratory mice, our knowledge of farm animals is rather poor at the cellular level. I see a lot of excitement and VCs invest, but not much in scientific, material advances, she says. It will be difficult to expand the technology if we learn how these complex biological systems react and grow.

Meat from laboratory cultivation has another more tangible problem. Growing muscle cells from the bottom up produce pure meat tissue, but the result lacks an essential part of every burger or steak: fat. Fat gives meat its taste and moisture, and its texture is difficult to reproduce. Vegetable meat already partially circumvents the problem by using the shear cell technology to pull the vegetable protein mixture together in layers to form a meat-like fiber texture. However, if you want to prepare a meat-free steak from scratch, you still need to do some work. Cultivated meat needs a way to grow fat cells and somehow mix them with the muscle cells to make the end result tasty. This has proven difficult so far, which is the main reason why the first burger was so dry.

The scientists at the Dutch meat startup Meatable may have found a way. The team has focused on medical stem cell research to find a way to isolate pluripotent stem cells in cows by removing them from the blood in umbilical cords of newborn calves. Pluripotent cells that form early in the development of an embryo can develop into any type of cell in the body. This means that they can also be made to produce fat, muscle, or even liver cells in meat from the laboratory.

I think there will be queues outside the store that are longer than the next iPhone.

Meatables work could mean that the cells can be processed into a steak-like product, the fat and muscle content of which depends on the customers wishes: for example, the characteristic marbling of a rib-eye steak. We can add more fat or make it slimmer we can do whatever we want. We have new control over how we feed the cells, said Meatables CTO, Daan Luining, who is also the research director of the nonprofit Cellular Agriculture Society. Pluripotent cells are like hardware. The software you run turns it into the desired cell. Its already in the cell you just have to trigger it.

The work of the researchers is also interesting because they have found a way to work around the FBS problem: the pluripotent cells do not need serum to grow. Luining is clearly proud of this. It was a very elegant solution to bypass this other cell type, he says.

He admits that Meatable is still years from the launch of a commercial product, but is confident that it will open up prospects. I think there will be queues outside the store that are longer than the next iPhone, he says.

It looks like laboratory meat isnt quite as virtuous as you think. While greenhouse gas emissions are lower than that of the greatest villain, beef, it is more environmentally harmful than chicken or vegetable alternatives due to the energy needs currently required for its production. A World Economic Forum white paper on the impact of alternative meat found that laboratory-grown meat as it is now produced only produces about 7% less greenhouse gas emissions than beef. Other substitutes such as tofu or plants led to a reduction of up to 25%. We will have to see whether companies can actually offer low-emission products at reasonable costs, said Marco Springmann, co-author of the newspaper in Oxford.

It is also unclear how much better laboratory meat would be for you than the original. One reason why meat has been linked to an increased risk of cancer is because it contains heme, which can also be present in cultivated meat.

And do people even want to eat it? Datar believes that. The little research on this topic supports this. A 2017 study published in PLoS One magazine found that most U.S. consumers were willing to try laboratory meat and that about a third were likely or definitely willing to eat it regularly.

It is unrealistic to expect the whole world to go vegan. However, a October 2018 report in Nature suggested that if everyone switched to the flexible lifestyle (mainly vegetarian food, but with a little poultry and fish and no more than one serving of red meat a week), we could halve greenhouse gas emissions from food production and also reduce other harmful effects of the meat industry, such as the excessive use of fertilizers and the waste of fresh water and land. (According to a study in The Lancet in October, premature mortality could be reduced by about 20% as fewer people die from diseases such as coronary artery disease, stroke, and cancer.)

impossible food

Some of the biggest players in the traditional meat industry recognize this and subtly call themselves protein producers rather than meat companies. Like big tobacco companies that buy vape startups, the meat giants are buying shares in this new industry. In 2016, Tyson Foods, the worlds second largest meat processor, launched a venture capital fund to support alternative meat producers. It is also an investor in Beyond Meat. The third largest company, Cargill, invested in meat culture startup Memphis Meats in 2017, and Tyson followed in 2018. Many other large food manufacturers do the same. For example, in December 2018, Unilever bought a Dutch company called Vegetarian Butcher, which produces a variety of non-meat products, including vegetable-based meat substitutes.

A meat company doesnt do what it does because it worsens the environment and doesnt like animals, says Tetrick, Justs general manager. You do it because you think its the most efficient way. But if you do give them another way to make the company more efficient, they will.

At least some in the meat industry agree. In a profile for Bloomberg last year, Tom Hayes, then CEO of Tyson, made it clear where he saw the possible future of the company. If we can grow the meat without the animal, why not?

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Inside the Beltway: Abortion, immigration among forbidden topics at Thanksgiving table – Washington Times

Posted: November 30, 2019 at 4:41 pm

The warnings are already up in the popular press: Conversations during the Thanksgiving feast can be hazardous if they veer into political territory. But political talk can take place in theory: A data research company has now determined what topics are safe to talk about on the holiday.

With some qualitative analysis and a little common sense, weve created a cheat sheet that will help you blaze a path through Thanksgiving dinner that steers clear of treacherous political pitfalls and dangerous inter-uncle conflicts, reports Ranker.com, a Los Angeles-based media company which uses crowdsourcing to rank public opinion on multiple topics, typically at the rate of 15 million votes a month.

They have determined what political topics are the least and the most likely to set off a Thanksgiving dinner squabble. Their judgment is based on 300,000 votes from 40,000 respondents.

The topics to avoid this year: Abortion, immigration, terrorism and gender equality. The topics which are safe for dinnertime discussion: Ineffective government, health care reform and education.

If there are millennials present, they will be triggered, the organization says, by talk of abortion, police brutality and pollution. Generation X members will be set off by such topics as homelessness, affordable housing and campaign finance reform. Baby boomers will go to battle over terrorism, immigration and the moral decline of the nation.

The organization also has warnings for dinner hosts in certain states. If they live in Florida, their guests will be particularly sensitive about discussions of vaccines. In Indiana, its gender equality while Georgia diners are prone to fight over police brutality. Beware of talking about gun control at dinner tables in both California and Missouri; Texans get feisty over moral decline. New Yorkers get upset over transgender issues.

We examined each issue on a case-by-case basis to find the topics that are most likely to cause disagreement, as well as the ones on which people tend to either agree or not care about, Ranker.com explains.

A VERY SPECIALIZED MEAL

While most of us are enjoying turkey and pumpkin pie on Thanksgiving, the staff at one laboratory at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles will be busy serving a meal to stem cells.

Stem cells do not observe national holidays, says Loren Ornelas-Menendez, manager of the very specialized lab that converts samples of adult skin and blood cells into stem cells which the human body uses to make our cells in the first place.

These special cells help medical scientists learn how diseases develop and how they might be cured. The lab is tending millions of them. Oh, but they have needs.

Stem cells are living creatures that must be hand-fed a special formula each day, monitored for defects and maintained at just the right temperature. And that means the cell lab is staffed every day, 52 weeks a year, the lab notes in a public advisory.

Many people have dogs. We have stem cells, says Ms. Ornelas-Menendez.

Derived from hundreds of healthy donors and patients, the resident induced pluripotent stem cells or iSPCs are keys to potential treatments for diabetes, breast cancer, Alzheimers disease, blindness, Parkinsons disease and Crohns disease, among other conditions. Ten lab technicians monitor the cells through microscopes each day and cull out any cells which have gone awry for one reason or another.

But what do they eat even on Thanksgiving?

While the cells get sorted, a special feeding formula is defrosting in a dozen bottles spread around a lab bench. The formula includes sodium, glucose, vitamins and proteins. Using pipettes, employees squeeze the liquid into food wells inside little compartments that contain the iPSCs. Afterward, they return the cells to their incubators, the lab advises.

Lab director Dhruv Sareen suggests that people consider offering a toast to the stem cells on Thanksgiving.

One day the cells they tend could lead to treatments for diseases that have plagued humankind for centuries, he says. And thats something to be truly thankful for.

THE GIPPERS FAVORITE

Back by popular demand, Inside the Beltway again shares this little known but historic recipe for President Reagans Favorite Macaroni and Cheese enjoyed by Ronald Reagan and his family on Thanksgiving and other holidays. What follows is a step-by-step shared by Mrs. Ronald Reagan, Washington, D.C., Wife of the President in a spiral-bound community cookbook published by the American Cancer Societys Northern Virginia division in 1983. The recipe serves six and is baked at 350 degrees F for 45 minutes.

The directions are from the cookbook reflecting the style, perhaps, of another era:

1/2 pound macaroni, 1 teaspoon butter, 1 egg, beaten; 1 teaspoon salt, 1 teaspoon dry mustard, 3 cups grated cheese, sharp; 1 cup milk.

Boil macaroni in water until tender and drain thoroughly. Stir in butter and egg. Mix mustard and salt with 1 tablespoon hot water and add to milk. Add cheese leaving enough to sprinkle on top. Pour into buttered casserole, add milk, sprinkle with cheese. Bake until custard is set and top is crusty.

Curious about what transpired at a Reagan Thanksgiving? A 1985 Los Angeles Times account noted this:

President and Mrs. Reagan gathered with their family for a quiet Thanksgiving dinner at their fogbound ranch in the Santa Ynez mountains, where the main topic of conversation was the weather. The Reagans did not seem to mind the enforced seclusion as they sat down to a traditional turkey dinner, prepared by Ann Allman, the Reagan familys longtime cook in California. It was an all-American menu that included cornbread dressing, cranberries, string beans, mashed potatoes, salad, pumpkin pie and monkey bread, a family favorite.

POLL DU JOUR

46% of Americans say long standing family tensions are the cause of family fights during holidays.

37% say general politics is the cause; 33% cite the 2020 presidential race.

24% say someones future plans cause the fights; 24% say money.

22% say the behavior of guests; 21% say drinking and alcohol.

18% say holiday cooking is the cause.

Source: A YouGov poll of 1,310 U.S. Adults conducted Sept. 25-26 and released Tuesday.

Have a happy Thanksgiving and thank you for reading Inside the Beltway.

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The Ihrie Lab @ Vanderbilt | Neural stem cells, neural …

Posted: May 23, 2019 at 3:47 am

2019-04: Come see Rebecca speak at the EBC/Stem Cell symposium on campus April 4th.

2019-03: Gabrielle's paper on tumor cell of origin in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex is now out in Life Science Alliance. Congratulations!

2019-02: Mistry's latest paper on V-SVZ-contacting brain tumors is now out in Scientific Reports.

2018-11: Rebecca's minireview (with colleagues) on Shh signaling is now out in J Neurosci.

2018-10: Congratulations Laura - Best Talk award at Pharmacology retreat!

2018-09: Justine wins Runner-Up for Best Presentation at the PDB annual retreat. Way to go!

2018-08: Amanda wins the Outstanding Oral Presentation Award for her summer research project and is featured in the VUMC Reporter. Way to go Amanda!

2018-06: Welcome to our VSSA student Amanda Blythe from U Missouri!

2018-05: Welcome new Pharmacology Ph.D. student Laura Winalski!

2018-04: Congratulations to postdoctoral fellow Todd Bartkowiak on your NCI K00 award!

2018-03: Congratulations to Nalin (comentored with the Irish lab) on your successful Ph.D. defense and residency match (Yale/Pathology)!

2018-01: The Ihrie and Ess labs are awarded pilot funding from the Vanderbilt Brain Institute TiPs program to develop mass based imaging in brain.

2017-10: Congratulations Justine and Bret on your accepted review article for the American Journal of Pathology!

2017-9: Dr. Ihrie and Dr. Irish receive the Ann Faulkenberry Memorial Award at the Southeastern Brain Tumor Foundation Race for Research.

2017-7: The lab is thrilled to have been selected for a research grant from the Southeastern Brain Tumor Foundation. See you at the Race for Research in September!

2017-5: Amanda wins the 2017 Founders Medal, and Divya is Salutatorian for the MLK Jr. Magnet Class of 2017.

2017-4: Current Protocols article now available online for dissociation of solid tumors for analysis using mass cytometry.

2017-3: Congratulations to Mistry on receiving the The Society of Neurological Surgeons/RUNN Resident Award to support your research!

2017-2: Nalin receives the AACR - ABTA Scholar-in-Training Award for her upcoming poster at AACR!

2017-1: Congratulations, Mistry - second accepted article in J Neuro Oncology!

2016-11: Great job, Nalin - oral presentation of collaborative work at the SNO 2016 Meeting

2016-9: Congratulations, Justine - first place poster at the annual PDB retreat!

2016-9: Congratulations to Mistry on his accepted article in J Neuro Oncology!

2016-7: Congratulations to Gabrielle on her recently published review article!

2016-7: Way to go, Divya - nice presentation at the School for Science and Math @ Vanderbilt poster session!

2016-6: Congratulations to Justine on passing her Phase I qualifying exam!

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Saint Louis, Missouri – Stem Cells Transplant Institute

Posted: January 23, 2019 at 3:45 am

Stem cells are unique because they drive the natural healing process throughout your life. As a result, amazing new medical treatments in Saint Louis, Missouri and many other cities in United States, are being developed to treat a range of diseases that currently are difficult or impossible to treat like Alzheimers Disease, Parkinsons Disease, Multiple Sclerosis and many others.

Adult mesenchymal stem cells, which have the ability to differentiate into adult specialized cells, have emerged as a candidate cell type with great potential for cell-based repair technologies in Saint Louis. Adult mesenchymal stem cells can be isolated from a variety of adult tissues, readily culture-expanded without losing their differentiation potential, and have been induced to differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Stem Cells Transplant Institute in Costa Rica is a pioneer in the field of providing health care for patients who may benefit from the deployment of adult mesenchymal stem cells. Apply hereand discover yourself the benefits of this revolutionary treatment.

As the medical field continues to advance in Saint Louis, new therapies have shown incredible potential for healing patients who suffer from acute or chronic pain, repetitive injuries, and even degenerative diseases. This is known as regenerative medicine, and it continues to replace medications and devices previously utilized to address health concerns.

The St. Louis Post-Dispatch is the major regional newspaper in St. Louis, serving Greater St. Louis. It is one of the largest newspapers in the Midwestern United States. It was published on August 5, 2016 that Carrie D. Wolinetz, NIHs associate director for science policy, announced the new policy proposal, saying it would enable NIH research community to move this promising area of science forward in a responsible manner. Under the proposed NIH policy, taxpayer funds would be allowed for experiments in which human cells are added to early-stage embryos of animals. Despite research and advances made, stem cells therapies are not legally approved in Saint Louis.

The Stem Cells Transplant Institute of Costa Rica specializes in the legal treatment of Parkinson, Osteoarthritis, Erectile Dysfunction, Myocardial infarction, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Diabetes, COPD, Knee Injury, Multiple Sclerosis, Lupus, Alzheimer, Cardiovascular Disease and Neuropathy. Contact us.

At Stem Cells transplant institute in Costa Rica, we provide our patients from Baker, Huntleigh, Country Life Acres, Ladue and Westwood with the newest techniques of stem cells applications. Get more information about legally approved stem cell therapiesnow.

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Missouri University of Science and Technology – Wikipedia

Posted: December 10, 2018 at 7:41 am

Missouri University ofScience and Technology

Former names

Academic staff

Administrative staff

U.S.

Sporting affiliations

Missouri S&T, or Missouri University of Science and Technology, is a public land grant and space grant university located in Rolla, Missouri, United States and a member institution of the University of Missouri System. Most of its 8,884 students (fall 2017)[4] study engineering, business, sciences, and mathematics. Known primarily for its engineering school, Missouri S&T offers degree programs in business and management systems, information science and technology, sciences, social sciences, humanities, and arts.

Missouri S&T was founded in 1870 as the Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy (MSM), the first technological learning institution west of the Mississippi River. Early in its history, the School of Mines was focused primarily on mining and metallurgy. Rolla is located close to the Southeast Missouri Lead District which produces about 70% of the U.S. primary supply of lead as well as significant amounts of the nation's zinc.[11]

The school was founded under the auspices of the University of Missouri in Columbia in order to take advantage of the Morrill Land-Grant Acts to "teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts, in such manner as the legislatures of the States may respectively prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions in life."[12] The act endowed Missouri a federal land grant of 30,000 acres for each of the state's two senators and nine representatives at the timeor 330,000 acres (133,546.26ha; 515.62sqmi). The endowment said that the land could not be sold for less than $1.25/acre and as such as was a minimum endowment of $412,500 for Missouri. There was an intense debate in the state over the location and number of schools before it was finally decided to have one school in Columbia and a branch in the mining area of southeast Missouri.[13]

Iron County, Missouri (Ironton, Missouri) and Phelps County, Missouri (Rolla) made bids for the school. Iron County's bid was valued at $112,545 and Phelps County's bid was $130,545 so the Phelps bid was officially approved on December 20, 1870.[13]

Classes began in November 23, 1871 in a new Rolla High School building that the city of Rolla had just built. The college had an enrollment of 28 and three graduates in 1874.[13] The college bought what is now called the "Rolla Building" for $25,000 in January 1875. That building is now used as the Mathematics and Statistics Department's library, chair's office, part of the main office, and other faculty offices following a $2 million renovation in 1995.[14]

By the 1920s, the school expanded into civil, electrical, mechanical and chemical engineering as well as chemistry, physics, mathematics and geology. The school became home to Missouri's first operational nuclear reactor in 1961.[citation needed]

Until 1964, the school was considered an offsite department of MU's School of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts, reporting to the main campus in Columbia (although it began fielding sports teams in 1935 in the Mid-America Intercollegiate Athletics Association). As such, its presiding officer was originally called a director (18711941), then a dean (19411964).[15] In 1963 the University of Missouri System was created with the additions of standalone campuses in Kansas City and St. Louis. A year later, MSM was upgraded to an autonomous standalone campus as the University of Missouri at Rolla and its presiding officer, like that of its sister schools, was granted the title of chancellor. The curriculum was expanded to include most of the science and engineering disciplines, as well as social sciences and liberal arts such as psychology and history. In 1968, the campus name was slightly altered to the University of MissouriRolla, thus conforming to the naming scheme of the other three campuses. Business and management programs were gradually added in the following years. On January 1, 2008 UMR became known as Missouri University of Science and Technology or Missouri S&T for short.[16]

In making the case for changing the name, then Chancellor John F. Carney III noted that Rolla in 2007 was "one of the few technological research universities in the nation. A technological research university (polytechnic university or institute of technology) may be defined as one in which a majority of students are enrolled in engineering, the sciences, business or mathematics; the graduate and research programs in those fields are robust; and exceptional academic programs in the liberal arts, humanities and social sciences complement and provide context to the technological strengths of the institution."

He noted that more than 70 percent of its enrollment was in engineering and more than 90 percent was in engineering, business, science and mathsignificantly higher than engineering schools such as the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. He noted "The universitys name, however, does not reflect the distinctive nature of the campus. Often, UMR is viewed as a 'satellite' or 'branch' campus due to its name or as a 'feeder' campus for the University of Missouri-Columbia (commonly referred to as the University of Missouri). This branch-campus designation hinders many of our efforts to achieve national recognition and a strong reputation as a technological research university."[17][18]

He noted, "Of the 1.1 million seniors in the nation who took the ACT in 2006, only 551 non-Missouri seniors or .05 percent sent their scores to UMR." He also noted that the school's acronym of UMR got it confused with the University of Minnesota Rochester.[17]

Among the other names that were considered were Missouri University of Science and Engineering, Missouri Technological University, and Missouri Science and Engineering University.[18]

Missouri S&T Stonehenge, next to U.S. Highway 63 (Bishop Avenue)

Missouri S&T Stonehenge is a partial reconstruction of the original Stonehenge monument located on Salisbury Plain, in southern England. Missouri S&T's version of the ancient structure is located on the northwest corner of campus, and was dedicated on June 20, 1984 during the summer solstice. It features a 50-foot (15m) diameter ring of 30 stones around a horseshoe of five trilithons through which various sightings of sunrise and sunset can be made. About 160 tons of granite were used to construct the monument. The rock was cut by Missouri S&T's water jet cutter equipment, which used two waterjets cutting at a pressure of 15,000 pounds of force per square inch (103 MPa), slicing across the surface just like a conventional saw. The cutter moved at a speed of about 10 feet per minute (50mm/s) and cut between one-quarter and one-half inch (6 and 13mm) on each pass.[19]

After completion, Missouri S&T Stonehenge received an award from the National Society of Professional Engineers for being one of 1985's Ten Outstanding Engineering Achievements.[20]

The university developed a new way to make deep cuts in granite and worked with artist Edwina Sandys who used the method to create the Millennium Arch sculpture. The Arch is a single trilithon with the stylized silhouettes of a man and a woman cut from the two uprights. The figures cut from the uprights stand nearby as freestanding statues. The work, which is located on 10th Street facing Castleman Hall, was developed as a project of the High Pressure Waterjet Laboratory of the Rock Mechanics & Explosive Research Center at Missouri S&T.

There are two similar but smaller megaliths showing the same silhouette on each side of the sidewalk entrance to the Rock Mechanics & Explosive Research Center.

Leach Theatre is located in Castleman Hall and has a maximum seating capacity of 650 audience members. The theatre was opened in 1991 and plays host to approximately 100 events each academic year, including campus events and touring performances of groups such as the St. Louis Symphony Orchestra, the Russian National Ballet, Stomp, as well as off-Broadway shows such as Cats, Evita, and 42nd Street.[21]

The Curtis Laws Wilson Library is the main academic library on campus.[22] Wilson served as dean of the school from 1941 to 1963. The library's third floor is strictly a quiet study area with multiple rooms circling around the main area. The IT Helpdesk Walk-In Center is located on the first floor. The Miner Break Cafe (currently a Starbucks) is also located in the front right corner of the first floor.

The basement of the library is a quiet study area and is also home to several campus organizations, including:

The Puck is a small, circular stage in the center of the campus.[26] It is used for many student events, and is used extensively during St. Patrick's Day to host different events. It is a common gathering area, and tours given to new students often start at the landmark. Every year it is refaced to reflect the current "Best Ever" Saint Patrick's Day.

Officially opened in December 2010,[27] the Solar Village consists of four entries by Missouri S&T in the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon.[28] Students, staff, faculty, and donors of Missouri S&T designed, constructed, and competed homes in each of the first four Decathlons including the Solar House in 2002,[29] the Prairie House in 2005,[30] the Solar House in 2007,[31] and the Show-Me House in 2009.[32] In 2012, the Solar Village was one of two highlights in a video short that won recognition from Second Nature and a Climate Leadership Award for the campus.[33] In 2014, the Solar Village was expanded to include a microgrid system and an electric car charging station,[34] and in 2016, Missouri S&T announced a second, EcoVillage, composed of Decathlon entries including the 2013 Chameleon House and the 2015 Nest Home.[35]

Recent school rankings include:

The school operates the 200kW Missouri S&T nuclear reactor on-campus for educational, training, and research purposes. It became the first nuclear reactor to have become operational in Missouri, and first achieved criticality in 1961.

The Student Design & Experiential Learning Center (SDELC)[49] was established in 2000 to better support the various multi-disciplinary student design teams. In 2004, the Center's mission expanded to provide experiential learning in academic courses, identify and support student service learning projects within the curriculum, and support ad-hoc student teams in specialty academic events involving multi-disciplinary student research.

By 2006, the SDELC had expanded to ten student design teams. The center's expanded mission involved better funding and offering support and resources to multi-disciplinary project teams that had a research base to their activities. The SDELC provided academic credit opportunities in the form of three, one-hour classes on design, leadership and communication. The center also offers a half-credit course on experiential design through the Residential College (RC) program which has a per-semester enrollment of over 100 students engaged in hands-on learning projects. The SDELC's student design teams, research teams and projects, and academic courses are the foundation of experiential learning at Missouri S&T.[49]

The Missouri S&T Solar House Team, designs and builds a house that is completely sustained by energy collected directly from the sun.[50] After the house is built on campus, it is disassembled and transported to Washington, D.C. for the Solar Decathlon, a month-long competition. The Solar House Team placed 11th overall in both 2007[51] and 2009 out of a total of 20 teams. The team is one of only three teams to compete in four decathlons, and one of two teams to compete in four consecutive decathlons. The 2011 Decathlon is the first that Missouri S&T did not participate, but the Solar House Team is back in the 2013 Decathlon in Irvine, California. The team took first place in the Energy Balance category at the 2005 competition. At the 2002 competition the team took first place in Refrigeration, second place in Energy Balance and third in Hot Water. In 2002 and 2005, the Missouri S&T team took 9th place out of 14 teams and 7th place out of 18 teams respectively. After competition, the homes are returned to the Solar Village on the S&T campus where they are rented as student housing.

Missouri S&T's chapter of Engineers Without Borders has four ongoing international projects in Guatemala, Honduras, and Bolivia. Over one hundred students are part of a team that works to develop sustainable solutions to engineering problems, such as lack of access to drinking water, in developing countries.[52]

The Advanced Aero-Vehicle Group constructs a remote controlled airplane for the annual Society of Automotive Engineers' Aero Design competition. The project is of interest mainly to aerospace engineering students, but students from other disciplines are also on the team. The Advanced Aero Vehicle Group also constructs a rocket every year. The rocket competes in the USLI competition hosted by NASA, in which the rocket must carry a payload one mile into the atmosphere. The AAVG group is also working on a research and development subgroup to compliment the existing plane and rocket groups.

The Missouri S&T Human Powered Vehicle Team demonstrates the engineering excellence of its members via a human-powered vehicle. The team promotes alternative energy technology while providing tomorrow's engineers with hands-on experience in applying classroom knowledge. Through the spirit of intercollegiate competition, this project hopes to foster leadership, teamwork and the continuous advancement of technologies for the betterment of humanity. The Missouri S&T Human Powered Vehicle Team competes annually at the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Human Powered Vehicle Challenge in both West and East Coast Competitions. The team has placed among the top two overall in 14 of 16 competitions, and holds the female sprint record of 41.8mph and male sprint record of 48.6mph.[53] In 2010, the team swept both the East and West Coast competitions and placed 1st in every event: Design, Male Drag Race, Female Drag Race and the Endurance Race, giving the team 1st Place Overall and National Speed Class Champions.

The Missouri S&T Formula SAE team constructs a small formula-style race car every year, suitable for mass production and sale to weekend autocrossers. The team competes in Brooklyn, Michigan against more than 100 other teams from universities around the world. The vehicle's cost, sales presentation, engineering design, acceleration, braking and racing performance all factor into its final score. The team has placed in the top ten in eight of the past twelve competitions, including first-, second- and fourth-place finishes.[54]

The Missouri S&T Concrete Canoe Team designs and constructs a concrete canoe and races it on a lake in regional and national competitions. The team has participated in concrete canoe competitions since the 1970s. The entire project, including fundraising and construction, is completed by the students. The team took third place in 2004.[55]

Missouri S&T's solar car team has met with much success. Every two years, the team constructs a single-passenger car, its top covered with solar cells, that runs exclusively on solar power. The car houses lithium ion batteries, which are much lighter than conventional lead-acid batteries. Every time the car is rebuilt, changes make it lighter and more efficient. The team regularly enters solar car races in the United States and occasionally enters international races. The car claimed first place in Sunrayce '99, first place in the 2000 Formula Sun Grand Prix, fourth place in the Australian World Solar Challenge in 2001, second place in the 2001 American Solar Challenge, and first place in the 2003 American Solar Challenge. In 2016, the team placed fourth in the American Solar Challenge after not participating for six years.

The Missouri S&T Satellite Project team began as an Aerospace engineering course (AE301 Spacecraft Design) when NASA held a contest for a 2-year development and build project (Nanosat program) that had to accomplish its goals in the harsh environment of space. After taking third place in Nanosat-4, the team continued perfecting its twin satellites for spaceflight and entry into the Nanosat-6 competition. During this cycle, the team was awarded "Best Outreach"[56] for its work at encouraging an interest by local school students in STEM-related fields. The team placed second during Nanosat-7, beating rival MIT.[57] With their legacy twin-satellite design and feedback from the AFRL sponsors, the team went on to win Nanosat-8 in 2015.[58]

The S&T Robotics Team participates annually in the Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC).[59] The team builds autonomous vehicles that traverse obstacle courses consisting of lane markers and obstacles. The current vehicles are designed to be omnidirectional so that they can easily drive around obstacles. Typically there are 3050 students on the team and two faculty advisers. The students handle all design and management aspects of the team but occasionally receive help from technicians to fabricate parts.

The Missouri University of Science and Technology Electromagnetic Compatibility Consortium is a broad partnership of digital electronics companies committed to funding electromagnetic compatibility research.

The S&T Mars Rover design team finished in first place at the 2017 international University Rover Challenge competition held June 13, 2017, in Hanksville, Utah. Missouri S&T's Mars Rover, named Gryphon, was designed and built by the students. The team developed custom circuitry for the rover, machined the aluminum and carbon-fiber support structure, developed durable wheels for terrain mobility, and 3-D printed gears used in the rover.[60]

Missouri S&T athletic teams are known as the "Miners" and the women's teams are referred to as the "Lady Miners". The name comes from the university's history as a mining school. Missouri S&T competes at the NCAA Division II level in thirteen sports and is a member of the Great Lakes Valley Conference (GLVC) for most sports, and the New South Intercollegiate Swimming Conference (NSISC) for men's swimming.[61]

Club sports associated with Missouri S&T include ultimate frisbee,[62] lacrosse, rugby union, roller hockey, trap and skeet,[63] tennis, baseball,[64] and water polo.[65]

Intramural sports have a very large following at the Missouri S&T. With over 60 men's teams and over 10 women's teams, sports are arranged into divisions. Thirty different sports are contested each year: golf, softball, swimming, ultimate, flag football, billiards, badminton, volleyball, racquetball, bowling, basketball, table tennis, tennis, track, weightlifting, and soccer.

The Missouri S&T event calendar includes current campus events.[66]

There are over 200 student organizations at Missouri S&T, including student government, professional societies, community service organizations, and religious and cultural groups.[67]

The student-run newspaper at Missouri S&T, The Missouri Miner, is published every Thursday during the school year and can be read online.[68] In February 2007, the paper threatened to sue the school because the university cut funding.[69] After a one-school-year break for many reasons including a funding cut, The Missouri Miner started republishing in the fall 2009 semester.

Production of the university's RollaMo yearbook is handled by undergraduate students.[70]

Two broadcast radio stations are associated with Missouri S&T: KMNR, previously known as KMSM, is a student-run, freeform radio station whose music playlist varies with the mood and inclination of the DJ, with some playing caller requests. Every year KMNR hosts two concerts Freakers Ball in the fall and MasqueRave (formerly Glitter Ball) in the spring. KMST, previously known as KUMR, is a member-supported public radio station, typically playing classical, bluegrass and jazz and National Public Radio programs. On July 16, 2007, KUMR officially changed its call letters to KMST, in advance of the change of name from "University of MissouriRolla" to the "Missouri University of Science and Technology". In 2017, KMST's broadcast operations were transferred to the University of MissouriSt. Louis.

Amateur radio station, WEEE, founded in 1931 and run by the Amateur Radio Club, was the first campus club at MSM and is one of the oldest student/college amateur stations in the US.[71]

Honor societies with chapters at Missouri S&T include:

Approximately 25% of the undergraduate student body belongs to a social Greek organization.[72]There are 5 sororities and 22 fraternities.[73]

The nationally recognized fraternities with chapters at Missouri S&T are:

The nationally recognized sororities with chapters at Missouri S&T are:

The Beta-Eta chapter of Tau Kappa Epsilon was founded at the Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy on March 8, 1947 the fraternity's 55th chapter. It remains active at Missouri S&T and has a chartered alumni association.[74][75] As of spring 2018, the chapter has initiated 1,173 members and received 52 international awards.[76] The Beta-Eta chapter is currently recognized internationally as a "Top TKE Chapter", the fraternity's highest recognition for a chapter.[77] In 2017, the Tau Kappa Epsilon chapter at Missouri S&T completed construction of a new chapter house on Fraternity Row where the old Delta Sigma Phi round house was located.[78][79]

St. Patrick's Day is the largest annual celebration and predominant cultural event at Missouri S&T, with each year's observance touted as the "Best Ever!". During St. Pat's, students wear green sweatshirts (which are sold as fund-raisers throughout the season), carry shillelaghs and party (including drinking green beer). One tradition, observed primarily among fraternities, is the "killing" of rubber snakes in commemoration of St. Patrick's mythical banishing of snakes from Ireland. Along with snake invasion comes the tradition of Follies. Students meet daily at "the Puck" (a short cylindrical stage bearing a large shamrock) to hear jokes and participate in short competitions. On the third day of Follies, students move to the town's band-shell to participate in the ceremonial arrival of St. Pat's Court. The day after Follies, students participate in "Gonzo and Games". Gonzo and Games are two days of elaborate games in which different organizations compete. Friday of St. Pat's week is concluded with Coronation, a ceremony where the Queen of Love and Beauty is announced. The final event of St. Pat's week is a Saturday morning parade on Pine Street, which is painted green by St. Pat's Board Alumni. This parade is known throughout the United States and boasts well over one hundred floats and participating groups. The rationale for the celebration is the notion that St. Patrick is the patron saint of engineers.[80][81]The recognition of St. Patrick as the "Patron Saint of Engineers" began in 1903 when the Engineering students of the University of Missouri in Columbia claimed St. Patrick's Day to be a holiday for engineers.[82] The tradition has remained to this day and has been adopted by many other schools across the nation.St. Patrick's Day 2008 marked the one hundredth consecutive year of St. Patrick's Day celebrations at Missouri S&T.[83]

The naming structure for the head of the university has changed reflecting its changes through the years. It is currently headed by a chancellor who in turn reports to the University of Missouri system.[84]

The chancellor lives on campus at the Chancellor Residence (constructed in 1889 as the "Club House" dormitory, converted to a room house, before becoming the Missouri State Geological Survey headquarters and finally becoming the residence for the then-director in 1905).[85]

Coordinates: 375720N 914625W / 37.955544N 91.773513W / 37.955544; -91.773513

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Missouri University of Science and Technology - Wikipedia

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Bluetail Medical Group Regenerative Medicine Experts

Posted: July 8, 2018 at 10:43 pm

Leading the Field in Regenerative Orthopedics and Stem Cell Therapy

As one of the nations foremost orthopedic groups that practices stem cell therapy on a regular basis and trains other physicians on the procedure,our providers are regarded as nationwide experts inregenerative medicine, which includes stem cells andPRP therapy.

Bluetail Medical Group has the training and experience to make sure you get the right treatment, no matter where you live. Call today toschedule a consultation with an expert inSt. Louis, Columbia, or Naples.

What is Stem Cell Therapy?

Stem cell therapy has been recognized by the medical industry worldwide as the biggest breakthrough in natural healing. Stem cells have regenerative power; when they are injected into an area that needs healing, your bodys natural response is to accelerate the process and repair the damage. It is a non-surgical procedure involving the extraction and injection of your own naturally occurring stem cells. We concentrate stem cells from bone marrow.

What Does Stem Cell Therapy Treat?

Stem cell therapy has successfully treated a wide range oforthopedic conditions, including soft tissue injuries involving tendons and ligaments.

At Bluetail Medical Group, we use stem cells to treatrotator cuff tears, knee osteoarthritis, back pain, and more. We use stem cells in conjunction withPRP injections to treat degenerative joint disease, some full thickness non-retracted tendon tears or osteoarthritis.

What Are the Benefits of Stem Cell Therapy?

Most patients experience minimal discomfort and return to normal activities within a few days. Results of stem cell therapy include accelerated healing, and for many patients, pain relief that can last for years and, in some soft tissue injuries may be permanent.

Am I a Candidate for Stem Cell Therapy?

If you have a tendon or ligament injury, muscle injury, joint damage, nerve pain, or back pain, you may be a candidate. If you are not getting the results you need from your current treatment plan and you want to avoid surgery, then you owe it to yourself to investigate stem cell therapy.

Not everyone is a candidate if you have active cancer or infection, a history of lymphoma, or are taking certain blood thinners, this therapy may not be suitable for you. Your Bluetail physician will evaluate your pain and determine the chance of success with regenerative therapies.

Bluetail Medical Groupis a leading provider of stem cell therapy for orthopedics, including arthritis treatment and back pain relief. We are proud to offer this service to patients from across the US. Our clinics are in St. Louis and Columbia, Missouri, and Naples, Florida. Contact us byphoneoronline for more information and to book your preferred appointment time today.

Stem Cell Therapy: Conditions Treated

Ourhighly qualified physicians have expertise in treating injuries andarthritis in the shoulder, elbow, hand, wrist, hip, knee, foot, ankle, and spine all of which can be treated with stem cells. If you have been diagnosed with a partial tendon or ligament tear, the good news is that stem cell therapy might be worth considering.

If you have any of the following conditions, we recommend seeing anorthopedic specialistatBluetail Medical Groupin St. Louis or Columbia, Missouri and Naples, Florida right away.

Common conditions we can treat with stem cells:

Partial or minimally retracted tendon tears

Partial ligament tears

Cartilage conditions, including shoulder and hip labral injuries

Meniscus tears

Sometimes a series of injections is required to achieve optimal results, which can last for years or forever. For many patients, the treatment benefits can eliminate or reduce the need for orthopedic surgery.

Learn more:

Dont suffer pain or have a surgery you dont need, when stem cell therapy might be the solution. Schedule a consultation withBluetail Medical Group today. If you are a candidate for this revolutionary treatment, we will explain all the details so you know exactly what to expect.

Every day we treat patients from all across the U.S. Even if you are not local, we welcome you to investigate our treatments. For an appointment, give us a call orrequest an appointment online today.

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Brain’s Stem Cells Slow Aging in Mice – Scientific American

Posted: July 30, 2017 at 9:43 pm

Stem cells in the brain could be the key to extending life and slowing ageing. These cells which are located in the hypothalamus, a region that produces hormones and other signalling molecules can reinvigorate declining brain function and muscle strength in middle-aged mice, according to a study published on July 26in Nature1.

Previous studies have suggested that the hypothalamus is involved in ageing, but the latest research shows that stem cells in this region can slow the process. That makes sense, because the hypothalamus is involved in many bodily functions, including inflammation and appetite, says Dongsheng Cai, a neuroendocrinologist at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York City.

In their study, Cai and his colleagues found that stem cells in the hypothalamus disappear as mice grow older. When the researchers injected their mice with viruses that destroy these cells, the animals seemed to grow older faster, experiencing declines in memory, muscle strength, endurance and coordination. They also died sooner than untreated mice of the same age.

Next, the team injected stem cells taken from the hypothalami of newborn mice into the brains of middle-aged mice. After four months, these animals had better cognitive and muscular function than untreated mice of the same age. They also lived about 10% longer, on average.

The researchers found that these stem cells release molecules called microRNAs, which help to regulate gene expression, into the cerebrospinal fluid. When the team injected these microRNAs into the brains of middle-aged mice, they found that the molecules slowed cognitive decline and muscle degeneration.

It's an interesting paper, says Leonard Guarente, a molecular biologist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, who studies ageing. He adds that it could lead to various ways of developing anti-ageing therapies in people.

Stem-cell therapies might enhance the ability of the hypothalamus to act as a master regulator, given that the latest results suggest it controls ageing through signalling peptides such as hormones and microRNAs, Cai says. He says that his team is trying to identify which of the thousands of types of microRNA produced are involved in ageing, and hopes to investigate whether similar mechanisms exist in non-human primates.

The findings represent a breakthrough in ageing research, says Shin-ichiro Imai, who studies ageing at Washington University in St Louis, Missouri. The next steps would be to link these stem cells with other physiological mechanisms of ageing, he says. For instance, these cells may have a role in regulating the neurons that release a hormone called GnRH, which is secreted by the hypothalamus and is associated with ageing. Imai would also like to know whether the microRNAs from the cells can pass into the bloodstream, which would carry them throughout the body.

Cai suspects that anti-ageing therapies targeting the hypothalamus would need to be administered in middle age, before a persons muscles and metabolism have degenerated beyond a point that could be reversed.

It is unclear by how much such a therapy could extend a human lifespan, but Guarente says that slowing the effects of ageing is the more important goal. Living longer isnt important if youre not healthy, he says.

This article is reproduced with permission and wasfirst publishedon July 26, 2017.

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Brain’s stem cells slow ageing in mice – Nature.com

Posted: at 9:43 pm

Patrick Landmann/SPL

Mice aged more slowly when injected with stem cells from the brains of newborns.

Stem cells in the brain could be the key to extending life and slowing ageing. These cells which are located in the hypothalamus, a region that produces hormones and other signalling molecules can reinvigorate declining brain function and muscle strength in middle-aged mice, according to a study published on 26 July in Nature1.

Shamini Bundell discovers more about the brains role in ageing

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Previous studies have suggested that the hypothalamus is involved in ageing, but the latest research shows that stem cells in this region can slow the process. That makes sense, because the hypothalamus is involved in many bodily functions, including inflammation and appetite, says Dongsheng Cai, a neuroendocrinologist at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York City.

In their study, Cai and his colleagues found that stem cells in the hypothalamus disappear as mice grow older. When the researchers injected their mice with viruses that destroy these cells, the animals seemed to grow older faster, experiencing declines in memory, muscle strength, endurance and coordination. They also died sooner than untreated mice of the same age.

Next, the team injected stem cells taken from the hypothalami of newborn mice into the brains of middle-aged mice. After four months, these animals had better cognitive and muscular function than untreated mice of the same age. They also lived about 10% longer, on average.

The researchers found that these stem cells release molecules called microRNAs, which help to regulate gene expression, into the cerebrospinal fluid. When the team injected these microRNAs into the brains of middle-aged mice, they found that the molecules slowed cognitive decline and muscle degeneration.

It's an interesting paper, says Leonard Guarente, a molecular biologist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, who studies ageing. He adds that it could lead to various ways of developing anti-ageing therapies in people.

Stem-cell therapies might enhance the ability of the hypothalamus to act as a master regulator, given that the latest results suggest it controls ageing through signalling peptides such as hormones and microRNAs, Cai says. He says that his team is trying to identify which of the thousands of types of microRNA produced are involved in ageing, and hopes to investigate whether similar mechanisms exist in non-human primates.

The findings represent a breakthrough in ageing research, says Shin-ichiro Imai, who studies ageing at Washington University in St Louis, Missouri. The next steps would be to link these stem cells with other physiological mechanisms of ageing, he says. For instance, these cells may have a role in regulating the neurons that release a hormone called GnRH, which is secreted by the hypothalamus and is associated with ageing. Imai would also like to know whether the microRNAs from the cells can pass into the bloodstream, which would carry them throughout the body.

Cai suspects that anti-ageing therapies targeting the hypothalamus would need to be administered in middle age, before a persons muscles and metabolism have degenerated beyond a point that could be reversed.

It is unclear by how much such a therapy could extend a human lifespan, but Guarente says that slowing the effects of ageing is the more important goal. Living longer isnt important if youre not healthy, he says.

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Chemical persuasion by David Sparks Ph.d, click here for bio – AgInfo.net (press release) (registration) (blog)

Posted: at 9:43 pm

When it comes to nematodes, unraveling the root of the issue is complicated. These tiny parasites siphon off the nutrients from the roots of important crops like soybeans, and scientists keep uncovering more about how they accomplish this task. Research from the University of Missouri lab of Dr. Melissa Mitchum recently pinpointed a new way nematodes take over root cells.

In a normal plant, the plant sends different chemical signals to form different types of structures for a plant. One of those structures is the xylem for nutrient flow, Plant researchers discovered a peptide signal for vascular stem cells several years ago, but this is the first time anyone has proven that a nematode is also secreting chemical mimics to keep these stem cells from changing into the plant structures they normally would.

Stem cells? Xylem? Chemical mimics? Lets unpack whats going on.

First, all plants contain stem cells. These are cells with unbridled potential and are at the growth centers in a plant. Think the tips of shoots and roots. With the right urging, plant stem cells can turn into many different types of cells.

That influence often comes in the form of chemicals. These chemicals are typically made inside the plant and when stem cells are exposed to them at the right time, they turn certain genes either on or off that in turn start a transformation of these cells into more specialized organs.

Want a leaf? Expose a stem cell to a particular combination of chemicals. Need a root? Flood it with a different concoction of peptides. The xylem the dead cells that pipe water and nutrients up and down the plant requires a particular type of peptide that connects with just the right receptor to start the process.

But for a nematode, the plan is to hijack the plants plan and make plant cells feed it. This microscopic worm attaches itself to a root and uses a needle-like mouthpiece to inject spit into a single root cell. That spit contains chemical signals of its own engineered to look like plant signals. In this case, these chemicals B-type CLE peptides and their purpose are just being discovered by Mitchums lab.

Now a nematode doesnt want to turn its feeding site into xylem because these are dead cells it cant use, so they may be tapping into part of the pathway required to maintain the stems cells while suppressing xylem differentiation to form a structure that serves as a nutrient sink, Mitchum said. To me thats really cool.

This means these cells are free to serve the nematode. Many of their cell walls dissolve to create a large nutrient storage container for the nematode and some create finger-like cell wall ingrowths that increase the take up of food being piped through the roots. For a nematode, thats a lifetime of meals for it while it sits immobile, just eating.

But how did scientists figure out and test that this nematodes chemical was the cause?

Using next generation sequencing technologies that were previously unavailable, Michael Gardner, a graduate research assistant, and Jianying Wang, a senior research associate in Mitchums lab, compared the pieces of the plant and nematode genome and found nearly identical peptides in both B-type CLE peptides.

Everything is faster, more sensitive and we can detect things that had gone undetected through these technological advances that didnt exist 10 years ago, Mitchum said.

To test their theory, Xiaoli Guo, postdoctoral researcher and first author of the study in Mitchums lab synthesized the B-type CLE nematode peptide and applied it to vascular stem cells of the model plant Arabidopsis. They found that the nematode peptides triggered a growth response in much the same way as the plants own peptides affected development. They used mutant Arabidopsis plants engineered to not be affected as much by this peptide to confirm their findings. We knocked out genes in the plant to turn off this pathway, and that caused the nematodes feeding cell to be compromised. Thats why you see reduced development of the nematode on the plants.

This all matters because these tiny nematodes cost U.S. farmers billions every year in lost yields from soybeans, and similar nematodes affect sugar beets, potatoes, corn and other crops. While this discovery is just a piece of a puzzle, these pieces hopefully will come together to build better crops. You have to know what is happening before you can intervene, Mitchum said. Now our biggest hurdle is to figure out how to not compromise plant growth while blocking only the nematodes version of this peptide.

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Chemical persuasion by David Sparks Ph.d, click here for bio - AgInfo.net (press release) (registration) (blog)

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