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Category Archives: Louisiana Stem Cells
Posted: June 6, 2021 at 2:13 am
Canine elbow osteoarthritis (OA) is a common sequela from elbow dysplasia.1 Elbow OA is a progressive joint disease characterized by decreased joint range of motion, pain, cartilage destruction, and osteophyte formation.1,2 Treatment is mainly palliative and current strategies often consist of medical management including NSAIDs, analgesics, nutraceuticals, weight control, physical rehabilitation, and changes in activity level.13 Although daily use of NSAIDs may reduce OA pain, these agents have the potential to cause or exacerbate renal, gastrointestinal, and hepatobiliary disorders.4 In addition, it may not be practical for some owners to administer daily medications. Surgery often fails to prevent progression of OA and may not provide superior outcomes to medical management.5,6 Salvage procedures such as elbow replacement have inconsistent outcomes and a high complication rate.1,7,8
Nonsurgical management will likely remain a viable treatment option for dogs with elbow OA; therefore, optimization of current nonsurgical options and development of new innovative nonsurgical treatments are important. The use of intra-articular (IA) injections including platelet-rich plasma, dextrose prolotherapy, autologous protein solution, or stem cells has been reported for OA treatment with mixed results.912 Larger clinical studies are needed to fully understand the effects of these therapies on dogs with OA.
Synovitis precedes development of radiographic OA changes in humans and dogs.2,13,14 It is characterized by marked hyperplasia and permeability of the synovial lining, overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines, infiltration of inflammatory cells, production of degradative enzymes, and synovial neovascularization and proliferation.15 Inflammation sensitizes peripheral neurons in synovial tissue, resulting in joint pain.16 Marked synovitis precedes structural changes in the progression of OA and early intervention targeting joint inflammation, prior to radiographic changes, can delay or prevent chronic arthritic changes.15 Low-dose radiation therapy has direct anti-inflammatory effects on the synovium.17 A small study of 5 dogs with elbow OA concluded that use of single-low-dose radiotherapy may have short-term clinical benefits.18
As synovitis is strongly implicated in OA pathogenesis, surgical and nonsurgical synovectomy (synoviorthesis) have been used to alleviate human synovitis symptoms.19 Another reported method to relieve synovitis is via radiosynoviorthesis (RSO), which involves IA injection of low-energy ionizing radiation to induce apoptosis and ablate inflamed synovial cells.20 Use of this therapy has been reported in humans to treat synovitis in an effort to prevent, delay, or limit arthritic changes.20 Radiosynoviorthesis, primarily involving yttrium-90 (90Y), erbium-169 (169Er), and rhenium-186 (186Re), is an accepted outpatient therapy for treatment of early-stage chronic synovitis in humans with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, hemophilic arthritis or OA.20,21 The success rate of RSO reported by Zuderman et al was 89% for rheumatoid arthritis and 79% for OA in humans.22 Tin 117m (117mSn) homogeneous colloid was specifically developed to avoid the serious outcomes following treatment with high-energy beta emitters.23 Tin 117m colloid is a non-beta emitter with lower energy from which the conversion electrons have a therapeutic distance of activity of only 300 microns (0.3 mm).
Despite its many advantages, RSO is seldom performed in veterinary medicine, with limited reports including use of 177lutetium-labeled zirconia in dogs and 117mSn homogeneous colloid in rats.2426 In a recent prospective safety study of 5 dogs, blood, urine, feces, and organ scintigraphy counts showed that >99% of 117mSn activity was retained in the elbow joint for approximately 67 weeks.23 There were no adverse effects, and post-mortem evaluation revealed no joint damage. These findings, combined with the potential for protracted clinical improvement after a single IA injection, justify further evaluation of 117mSn for the management of canine OA. The authors designed the current study to assess the value of IA 117mSn for pain management in dogs with naturally occurring elbow OA. Specifically, the authors aimed to quantify changes in peak vertical force (PVF) from force plate gait analysis as the primary outcome measure and canine brief pain inventory (CBPI) scores and elbow goniometry as secondary outcome measures, at multiple time-points for one year after a single unilateral IA injection of 117mSn in dogs with grade 1 or 2 elbow OA. By limiting the study to unilateral elbow injection, the opposite leg is a source of comparison data. The hypothesis was that IA 117mSn-colloid treatment is associated with clinically relevant beneficial effects in dogs with elbow OA.
The study was designed as a long-term longitudinal and prospective study using serial measurements in dogs. The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee and informed client consent was obtained prior to study enrollment.
A convenience sample of 23 dogs was used in this study. No sample size calculation was performed. Dogs were eligible if they were, 8kg, at least 1 year of age, had a visible forelimb lameness or pain localizable to one or both elbows, had radiographic evidence of grade 1 or 2 OA in one or both elbows based on international elbow working group (IEWG) classification,27 had no clinically detectable abnormalities including pain in any other joint in the forelimbs, had no comorbid condition likely to preclude a 1-year survival, and had no surgical procedure on any leg in the past 4 months or received any joint injections previously. Elbow OA grading was performed by a single board-certified radiologist. All images were calibrated, and osteophyte size was prioritized over trabecular pattern. Dogs with orthopedic disease affecting either hind limb were considered eligible as long as there was no visible lameness present in any of the hind limbs. Dogs being treated with nutraceuticals and/or medications such as NSAIDs were eligible provided they still had lameness or pain localizable to one or both elbow/s.
Initially, information was collected from dog owners including signalment, duration of OA, and type and duration of current medications/supplements. Owners also completed the CBPI.28,29 After meeting initial evaluation requirements, all dogs received a baseline assessment within 30 days of treatment prior to study participation. Dogs had a physical examination, and the following variables were obtained: CBC, serum biochemistry, urinalysis (UA), bilateral elbow radiographs, bilateral elbow goniometry and PVF using force plate gait analysis. These parameters were also collected post-treatment at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Bilateral elbow radiographs were performed at the 12-month follow-up exam. Treatment included a unilateral IA injection of 117mSn in the elbow that was determined to be the source of observable lameness or was more painful when observable lameness was not noted. Dogs were randomly assigned to one of the three 117mSn dose groups (normalized based on body surface area, Supplementary Table 1): low dose (LD): 1.0 mCi (millicuries) or 37 MBq (MegaBequerel), medium dose (MD): 1.75mCi or 64.75 MBq and high dose (HD): 2.5mCi or 92.5 MBq, using a computer-generated randomized table. Observers and owners were masked to the dose group except the radiologist who injected the colloid.
Both sites used the same model force-plate (OR6-WP-1000, Advanced Medical Technology Inc, Newton, MA) and commercially available force-plate analysis software. Data logging (100Hz, Acquire version 7.3, Sharon Software Inc, Dewitt, MI) was triggered by a force of 5N on the force plate. Five successful trials at a velocity of 1.52.5m/sec and acceleration of 0.9 to 0.9m/sec2 were recorded for each leg. Dogs were acclimated and trained to walk across the force plate during the pretreatment gait trial. Trained handlers walked the dogs for all testing. PVF (N/kg) was recorded and normalized to body weight and the mean value of five trials was used for statistical analyses. Body weight distribution % (BW-D%) between the forelimbs was calculated according to the formula: BW-D% = PVFT/(PVFUT + PVFT) 100%, where PVFT = mean PVF of the treated leg, and PVFUT = mean PVF of the contralateral untreated leg.
A positive response was defined as 5% increase in mean PVF at a single time point in the treated leg2934 at months 1, 3, 6, 9, and/or 12 compared with baseline (0 month) for each individual dog evaluated on the force plate.
Owners completed the CBPI28,35 scores at initial evaluation and then monthly from 1 through 12 months except for the 2nd month post treatment. The same individual was required to complete the survey each time. Owners did not have access to their previous scores at each follow-up visit.
A single boarded surgeon from each site performed a physical/orthopedic examination. Elbow goniometry was performed using a standard two-arm plastic goniometer as previously described.36
Dogs were anesthetized, positioned in dorsal recumbency, and the medial aspect of the elbow to be injected was aseptically prepped. The homogeneous 117mSn-colloid (Synovetin OA, Exubrion Therapeutics, Buford, GA) was injected into the joint as previously described.23 After completion of the injection, dogs were recovered from anesthesia and discharged the following morning. Instructions for care and handling with regards to the radioisotope were provided to the owners. All disposables coming in contact with 117Sn were disposed of following all State Regulatory Commission guidelines. Tin 117m is a non-beta emitter in which radiation burns do not occur. The low-energy characteristics of the therapeutic conversion electrons are very different from the higher energy beta emitters (90Y, 169Er, 186Re) commonly used in human RSO.20 As mentioned, elbow injection doses of Tin 117m were based on a chart based on body surface area (Supplementary Table 1) to allow clinicians to adhere to the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle. Previous studies in both laboratory rats and dogs in which histologic sections were obtained have shown that even with higher doses of homogeneous Tin 117m colloid, beta burns did not occur.23,25 Standard industry precautions were taken when handling homogeneous tin colloid as with any unsealed radiation source as prescribed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
Data analyses were performed using JMP Pro 15.0 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). All continuous parameters were presented as mean SD and assessed with a repeated measure ANOVA with a mixed effect model was used with time as the fixed effect and each dog as the random effects with the variance compounds covariance structure within each dose group and within treated or untreated elbow. Kenward-Roger approximation was used to determine the degrees of freedom in the model. A contrast hypothesis was performed at each time point against baseline. Assumptions of these models (linearity, normality of residuals, and homoscedasticity of residuals) and influential data points were assessed by examining standardized residual and quantile plots, and the normality of residual was confirmed with the ShapiroWilk test. Ordinal subjective variables at each time point were presented as median (range). Due to small sample size, the data was combined and compared with baseline and untreated elbow using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The outcomes of positive response among 3 groups were evaluated with Fishers exact test. Significance was set at P <0.05.
Demographic characteristics of the study population are shown in Table 1. One dog in the LD-group received a much lower dose, about 40% lower than the prescribed dose of 117mSn-colloid, so that dog was excluded from the study. Another dog (female intact) from the HD-group was excluded because the owner reported the dog had rough play with two other large housemate dogs and was very sore in the front limbs especially on the treated limb at the one-month recheck and the same dog was bred later during the three-month recheck. The exclusion of these 2 dogs resulted in a total of 21 dogs in our study population. Duration of arthritis and type of medical management are shown in Supplementary Table 2. All dogs had visible unilateral lameness except 3 dogs (2 had bilateral grade 1 OA and 3rd one had bilateral grade 2 OA). No adverse effects were observed on physical/orthopedic examination or reported by owners, and no clinically significant laboratory findings were noted related to the IA injection of 117mSn at regularly scheduled re-evaluations.
Table 1 Demographic Characteristics for 21 Dogs with Naturally Occurring Elbow OA Based on 117mSn Dose Group
Both PSS and PIS significantly improved at all time-points except for the 10-month (PSS) and the 10- and 11-month (PIS) (Table 2) scores compared to baseline. No significant differences were noted in QoL scores.
Table 2 Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI) Scores for 21 Dogs with Elbow OA at Pretreatment and at Each Time-Point Post Treatment. Values are Presented as Median (Range)
In the HD group for elbow extension there was a trend in improvement (approaching significance) in the treated leg at 6, and 9 months, respectively, compared to baseline (Table 3). Elbow extension also increased in the untreated leg at 9-month in the HD group and at 6-month in the MD group. In 1 dog from the MD-group, baseline force-plate data for the treated leg was missing and this dog died secondary to GDV after its 3-month evaluation. In 1 dog from the LD-group, five successful repeatable trials during force-plate data collection could not be obtained at the baseline evaluation. These 2 dogs were not included in the force plate data analysis. This resulted in a total of 19 dogs for force plate data analysis. The mean peak vertical force improved in the treated leg in the HD group by 5.4%, 12.0%, 10.1% and 12.3% at 1, 3, 6, and 9 months, respectively, compared to baseline. This increase was statistically significant at the 3- and 9-month time points. The mean PVF was significantly lower (by 9%) in the untreated leg at the12-month time point compared to baseline (Table 4). In the HD group, the mean BW-D% for the treated leg improved compared to baseline and this improvement approached significance at 3- and 9-month time points (Table 4).
Table 3 Evolution of Elbow Extension, Flexion and Range of Motion from Baseline to Month-12 in Treated and Untreated Elbows in 21 Dogs with Elbow OA for All Three 117mSn Dose Groups. The Means of Three Values for Elbow Extension and Flexion Were Recorded Bilaterally. The Data is Summarized as Mean Standard Deviation (SD)
Table 4 Evolution of PVF and BW-D% from Baseline to Month-12 in Nineteen Dogs with Elbow OA for All Three 117Sn Dose Groups. The Data is Summarized as Mean Standard Deviation (SD)
Based on the criteria mentioned above for a positive response, 17 of 19 dogs (89.5%) had a positive response (Table 5). There was no significant difference between the three dose groups for positive responses.
Table 5 Dog Number, 117mSn Dose Group, and Treatment Outcome in 19 Dogs Undergoing Force-Plate Analysis
The radiographic OA scores significantly increased both in treated elbows and untreated elbows at 12-month recheck compared to pretreatment scores (Table 6). There was no significant difference in OA score change from baseline between treated and untreated elbows at the time of the 12-month evaluation for all dose groups (Table 6).
Table 6 Radiographic OA Scores for Treated and Untreated Elbows for Study Dogs with Elbow OA at Pretreatment and at 12-Month Recheck. The 12-Month Radiographs Were Available for 18 Dogs
The ability to use RSO as a localized treatment with lasting results and no systemic adverse effects could make it a valuable therapeutic option for veterinary patients with OA. In our study, the use of IA 117mSn in dogs with elbow OA resulted in clinically relevant beneficial effects lasting for up to 9 months-based on force plate data with statistically significant improvement at 3 and 9 months post-injection and trending towards improvement (approaching significance) at 6 months post injection. The beneficial effects lasted for 1-year post injection based on CBPI data. This duration of RSO response is similar to what has been reported in humans where the response can last for a few months to several years.17
Radiosynoviorthesis (RSO) has been successfully used in human medicine for more than 60 years in many countries, particularly in Europe where it was first described and where its use conforms to guidelines published by the European Association of Nuclear Medicine.22,3739 RSO has been an accepted outpatient therapy for treatment of early stage chronic synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, hemophilic arthritis and OA patients for decades.3941 Current standards in human clinical practice generally take a conservative approach by recommending initial treatment with front-line therapies including systemic NSAIDs, glucocorticoids, and local joint therapies such as corticosteroid and hyaluronic acid injections prior to RSO.37 However, in patients that either respond poorly or have adverse side effects following these traditional therapies, RSO is a useful option that should now be considered in veterinary medicine. Traditional veterinary arthritis therapies when successful are oftentimes less costly than RSO using homogeneous tin colloid (117mSn). It can become costly when these initial traditional therapies cannot successfully manage elbow osteoarthritis and alternatives such as stem cell or platelet-rich plasma therapies are considered. The treatment in our study was evaluated specifically to manage canine arthritic elbows because oftentimes traditional veterinary arthritis therapies are not successful in dogs with elbow OA.1,2,4,912
The patients in this study were treated with homogeneous tin colloid (117mSn) containing microparticles (diameter 1.5 to 20.0 microns) of the radioisotope tin 117m (117mSn). These microparticles when injected into a joint are engulfed by intra-articular macrophages, which are killed by apoptosis due to the tin 117m conversion electron (CE) radiation.41 Admittedly, we had limited short-term evaluation for any adverse effects related to 117mSn injection. The absence of any adverse effects in the present study and in a previous experimental study, is most likely due to unique characteristics of 117mSn.23,25,26 Tin 117m emits abundant conversion electrons, low-energy particles with a short, non-diminishing penetration range of approximately 300m in tissue. Other radionuclides that emit beta particles result in variable tissue penetration and can result in damaging irradiation of adjacent non-target tissues.20 117mSn has a life of nearly 14 days, providing an ideal duration of effect spanning several lives to achieve therapeutic results and to enable short-term stability during storage and handling. Studies in rats and colony bred dogs have confirmed the safety of structures within the joint (cartilage, bone) and adnexal structures following IA injection with homogeneous tin colloid (117mSn).23,26 In addition to conversion electrons, 117mSn emits radiation, which is non-therapeutic but readily detectable by scintigraphy. In humans, the risk of infection after IA RSO is very small (1:35,000) and septic arthritis is uncommon.20 Similarly, none of the dogs in our study developed any infection related to 117mSn IA injection. Overall, in humans RSO has very low rate of adverse effects.41 Joint flare ie more pain and joint effusion due to intensification of inflammation (radiosynovitis) within 24 weeks after RSO is the most common adverse effect.20 This may be considered a natural course of the treatment due to rapid and extensive synovial necrosis when using higher energy beta-emitters. In humans, the joint flare from radiosynovitis is the main reason to consider co-injection of steroids. Routinely steroids are co-injected into large joints (shoulder, knee, and hip) because radiosynovitis is common in these joints.20 Even though canine joints are much smaller than human joint but this should be taken into consideration in dogs also in future studies involving RSO of these large joints.
Both PSS and PIS significantly improved at all time points except for PSS at 10 months and for PIS at 10 and 11 months which were not statistically significant compared to baseline, but these scores were still improved compared with baseline. A caregiver placebo effect may have played a role in improvement of CBPI as this effect has been shown to occur approximately 57% of the time for pet owners evaluating their dogs with lameness from osteoarthritis.34 In addition to this a lack to control group makes this measure less ideal compared to force plate gait analysis to determine outcome. However, it would be implausible to expect a placebo effect to persist for the 1-year duration of the study. In addition, the CBPI has been shown to allow reliable quantification of the owners assessment of the severity and impact of clinically relevant chronic pain-related behaviors with the dog in its normal environment.28,29 The QoL item (poor, fair, good, very good, excellent) is a stand-alone item and is used initially as a criterion validity assessment in the validation of the severity and interference scores.35 It takes very large changes in pain scores to elicit a change in the QoL category, which could be a potential reason why we did not see any significant improvement in this category.35 In future studies, QoL as an outcome measure should be better approached with a global assessment of change over time (ie, much worse, worse, same, better, much better).
Goniometry is an economic and simple measurement of joint angles used to objectively assess joint function.42 Mean elbow extension improved by 7 degrees at 6-month and by 10 degrees at 9-month follow-up time point in the treated elbow in the HD-group. However, mean elbow extension also increased in the untreated leg by 7 degrees at 9 months in the HD group and by 8 degrees at 6 months in the MD group. Therefore, our results indicate that there was no significant difference in this outcome measure between treated and untreated elbows.
The force-plate gait analysis is an established objective gold standard for quantification of leg function and pain in dogs with appendicular joint OA.29 It is considered to provide an accurate and unbiased assessment. However, without a placebo treatment group, we are unable to know if other external factors influenced the dogs in a way that may have resulted in improved leg function. A caregiver placebo effect as mentioned above does not exist for appropriately acquired force plate gait analysis. In addition, in a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study where every dog received tramadol or carprofen or placebo during the study period, the authors found no change in PVF over a 10-day period in the placebo group.33 Additionally, in our study the untreated opposite leg served as a source of comparison data. The improvement noted in PVF in our study is larger than what has been previously reported.29,32,33
One of the limitations of this pilot study was a small sample size. Another limitation was the lack of a placebo or control group; however, OA is a progressive disease. The lack of any therapy for osteoarthritis would not have been acceptable for an ethical committee for running a control group for up to 1 year. While using client-owned dogs is a strength of the study, it is also a limitation. Studies of naturally occurring OA in dogs are associated with potential confounding factors, such as the potential for owner errors in study compliance and variations in the home environment. However, this is the environment in which the agent will be used and assessed by veterinarians and owners. Dogs were allowed to continue previous medical management (NSAIDs or other analgesics) during the study. It is possible that use of these medications could have biased our results. Ideally, dogs would have all been taken off of medical management and undergone a washout period before enrollment. The authors elected to allow dogs to be continued on any previous medications for multiple reasons: to avoid increasing pain should the IA injection fail to control pain, to provide pain control in the untreated leg, to allow the study to be clinically relevant, and for the study to be reflective of the general canine population with OA. Future studies might include more stringent exclusion criteria. We focused on the elbow joint for consistency; it would be interesting to know the effects of this treatment on other arthritic joints.
The safe use of any radioisotope requires documented training by veterinarians and support staff. There is a recommended licensing, treatment and post-treatment caretaker instruction process published by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the safe use of 117mSn in the US.43 Unlike I-131 and Tc 99m radiation quarantine is not indicated for 117mSn as it is not excreted in any appreciable amount. Instead, 117mSn is retained within the joint and is eventually cleared by the lymphatics to the liver as microparticles of inert (nonradioactive) tin.23,25,26 However, there are gamma emissions that must be measured at 1 meter post treatment to determine the amount of interaction with a patient by household members. All household members are to monitor and follow their interactions within 3 feet (from treated joint(s) to center of torso) prescribed by written instructions for 2 weeks. For dogs in which there is an extended close association (sleeping in the same bed, sitting beneath an occupied office chair or in ones lap > 4 hrs daily) there could be a longer period of abstaining from these behaviors for up to 46 weeks following 117mSn radiosynoviorthesis.43,44 All patients can return to normal activities and interactions with anyone beyond 3 feet immediately post treatment.43,44
Clinical response to RSO is usually expected to have some lag phase that can last from weeks to months.20 In humans, the effect in the knee is seen as soon as 4 weeks.20 In the current study, improvement was noted in dogs at 1-month evaluation, similar to humans. In humans, the full therapeutic impact of RSO can take 46 months and duration of response depends on already existing joint damage.20 Similarly in our study full therapeutic effect as shown by significantly improved objective measurements such as PVF (and improvement in BW-D% approaching significance) was achieved at 3 months post treatment. Advanced-stage OA and pre-existing joint damage are negative outcome predictors of RSO in humans.45 Thus, the best responders would be patients with limited joint damage or the patients with large amounts of inflammation/effusion rather than advanced degenerative changes. Our study population included dogs with mild to moderate (grade 1 to 2) degree of OA and, as in human studies, a good clinical response was noted. Future studies in dogs with advanced OA are indicated to evaluate the effects of IA 117mSn in those cases.
In conclusion, IA injection of 117mSn improved CBPI scores and increased weight-bearing associated with elbow OA, providing preliminary evidence that 17mSn is beneficial in the management of elbow OA in dogs. This localized therapy with protracted results can be considered as an adjunct to other nonsurgical or surgical treatments or as a stand-alone therapy for elbow OA and might be useful for patients that cannot tolerate traditional OA medications such as NSAIDs. Although 17mSn appeared to be effective for the treatment of elbow OA, this pilot study has inherent limitations; therefore, future studies with larger numbers of dogs and with placebo group are needed.
The study protocol was approved by Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (Protocol #16-008) and the Radiation Safety Office of the Louisiana State University (site A) and Medical Director Board and Radiation Safety Committee of Gulf Coast Veterinary Specialists (site B). All dogs were client-owned and written consent was obtained before study enrollment. This study adhered to veterinary care best practice guidelines.
The authors thank the LSU and GCVS force-plate teams and Sarah Keeton, PhD for her invaluable assistance in managing all data records.
Dr Andrews reports grants from Exubrion Therapeutics, during the conduct of the study. Dr Lattimer reports grants from Exubrion Therapeutics, during the conduct of the study. Dr Lattimer, however, had a career long interest in therapeutics of this type and has participated in privately and publicly funded work that employs radiopharmaceuticals and devices. None of this work has been done in the last several years except that associated with the parent project to this work. The study was funded by Exubrion Therapeutics, Buford, GA, USA. Drs. Aulakh, Hudson, and Fabiani are advisory board members for Exubrion Therapeutics and receive a small honorarium for consultation. All authors declare no other conflicts of interest related to this report.
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12. Sherwood JM, Roush JK, Armbrust LJ, et al. Prospective evaluation of intra-articular dextrose prolotherapy for treatment of osteoarthritis in dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2017;53:135142. doi:10.5326/JAAHA-MS-6508
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15. de Lange-brokaar BJ, Ioan-Facsinay A, van Osch GJ, et al. Synovial inflammation, immune cells and their cytokines in osteoarthritis: a review. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2012;20:14841499. doi:10.1016/j.joca.2012.08.027
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20. Chojnowski MM, Felis-Giemza A, Kobylecka M. Radionuclide synovectomy - essentials for rheumatologists. Reumatologia. 2016;3:108116. doi:10.5114/reum.2016.61210
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22. Zuderman L, Liepe K, Zphel K, et al. Radiosynoviorthesis (RSO): influencing factors and therapy monitoring. Ann Nucl Med. 2008;22:735741. doi:10.1007/s12149-008-0167-7
23. Lattimer JC, Selting KA, Lunceford JM, et al. Intraarticular injection of a Tin-117 m radiosynoviorthesis agent in normal canine elbows causes no adverse effects. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2019;60:567574. doi:10.1111/vru.12757
24. Polyak A, Nagy LN, Drotar E, et al. Lu-177-labeled zirconia particles for radiation synovectomy. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2015;30:433438. doi:10.1089/cbr.2015.1881
25. Doerr C, Stevenson NR, Gonzales G. Homogeneous Sn-117m col- loid radiosynovectomy results in rat models of joint disease [abstract]. J Nucl Med. 2015;1243.
26. Doerr C, Bendele A, Simon J. Validation of the use of homoge- neous Sn-117m colloid radiosynoviorthesis in a GLP osteoarthritis rat model [abstract]. J Nucl Med. 2016;323.
27. Ondreka N, Tellhelm B. Explanation of grading according to IEWG and discussion of cases, Proceedings, 31th annual meeting of the International Elbow Working Group (IEWG), Verona, Italy; 2017. Available from: http://www.vet-iewg.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/IEWG-proceedings2016.pdf. Accessed May 5, 2021.
28. Brown DC, Boston RC, Coyne JC, et al. Ability of the canine brief pain inventory to detect response to treatment in dogs with osteoarthritis. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2008;233:12781283. doi:10.2460/javma.233.8.1278
29. Brown DC, Boston RC, Farrar JT. Comparison of force plate gait analysis and owner assessment of pain using the Canine Brief Pain Inventory in dogs with osteoarthritis. J Vet Intern Med. 2013;27:2230. doi:10.1111/jvim.12004
30. Roush JK, Cross AR, Renberg WC, et al. Evaluation of the effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids on weight bearing in dogs with osteoarthritis. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2010;236:6773. doi:10.2460/javma.236.1.67
31. Mirza MH, Bommala P, Richbourg HA, Rademacher N, Kearney MT, Lopez MJ. Gait changes vary among horses with naturally occurring osteoarthritis following intra-articular administration of autologous platelet-rich plasma. Front Veterin Sci. 2016;3. doi:10.3389/fvets.2016.00029
32. Vijarnsorn M, Kwananocha I, Kashemsant N, et al. The effectiveness of marine based fatty acid compound (PCSO-524) and firocoxib in the treatment of canine osteoarthritis. BMC Vet Res. 2019;15:349. doi:10.1186/s12917-019-2110-7
33. Budsberg SC, Torres BT, Kleine SA, et al. Lack of effectiveness of tramadol hydrochloride for the treatment of pain and joint dysfunction in dogs with chronic osteoarthritis. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2018;252:427432. doi:10.2460/javma.252.4.427
34. Conzemius MG, Evans RB. Caregiver placebo effect for dogs with lameness from osteoarthritis. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2012;241:13141319. doi:10.2460/javma.241.10.1314
35. Brown DC. The canine brief pain inventory; 2021. Available from: http://www.caninebpi.com. Accessed May 5, 2021.
36. Jaegger G, Marcellin-Little DJ, Levine D. Reliability of goniometry in labrador retrievers. Am J Vet Res. 2002;63:979986. doi:10.2460/ajvr.2002.63.979
37. Kampen WU, Voth M, Pinkert J, et al. Therapeutic status of radiosynoviorthesis of the knee with yttrium [90Y] colloid in rheumatoid arthritis and related indications. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2007;46:1624. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/kel352
38. Karavida N, Notopoulos A. Radiation Synovectomy: an effective alternative treatment for inflamed small joints. Hippokratia. 2010;14:2227.
39. Klett R, Lange U, Haas H, et al. Radiosynoviorthesis of medium-sized joints with rhenium-186-sulphide colloid: a review of the literature. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2007;46:15311537. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/kem155
40. Schneider P, Farahati J, Reiners C. Radiosynovectomy in rheumatology, orthopedics, and hemophilia. J Nucl Med. 2005;46(Suppl 1):48S54S.
41. Knut L. Radiosynovectomy in the therapeutic management of arthritis. World J Nucl Med. 2015;14:1015. doi:10.4103/1450-1147.150509
42. Lascelles BD, Dong YH, Marcellin-Little DJ, et al. Relationship of orthopedic examination, goniometric measurements, and radiographic signs of degenerative joint disease in cats. BMC Vet Res. 2012;8:10. doi:10.1186/1746-6148-8-10
43. Procedure for use of Synovetin OA [Note: licensee to modify to match specific facility operations]; 2021. Available from: https://www.nrc.gov/docs/ML2028/ML20282A514.pdf. Accessed May 5, 2021.
44. Wendt RE, Selting KA, Lattimer JC, et al. Radiation safety considerations in the treatment of canine skeletal conditions using 153Sm, 90Y, and 117mSn. Health Phys. 2020;118:702710. doi:10.1097/HP.0000000000001222
45. Liepe K. Efficacy of radiosynovectomy in rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatol Int. 2012;32:32193224. doi:10.1007/s00296-011-2143-0
Posted: March 16, 2020 at 6:48 am
AVIATIONEthiopian investigators blame March 2019 crash on Boeing 737 Max design flaws
Ethiopian investigators have concluded that the March 2019 crash of an Ethiopian Airlines flight was caused by design flaws in the Boeing 737 Max plane and not by the performance of the airline or its pilots, adding to the scrutiny of the jet model that has been involved in two recent deadly crashes. An interim report released Monday by the Ethiopian Aircraft Accident Investigation Bureau comes almost exactly a year after Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302 went down shortly after departing Addis Ababa, killing all 157 people on board. The crash occurred five months after a similar Max owned by Lion Air of Indonesia crashed minutes after takeoff, killing 189 people. Although several factors have been cited in the two crashes, malfunctions related to automated software known as MCAS were listed as key in both accidents. A Boeing spokesman said Monday that the company continued to extend our heartfelt sympathies to the families and loved ones of Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302. The Indonesian report cited a number of factors, including aircraft design, the flight crews response and a lack documentation on the planes flight and maintenance history. In Ethiopias case, investigators found that the aircraft had a valid certificate of airworthiness, had no known technical problems before departure, and had weight and balance within the operating limits. But they said faulty sensor readings and automatic commands that did not appear on the flight crew operation manual had left the crew unable to control the plane, resulting in the fatal crash. The report also said Boeings reliance on a single sensor for the 737 Max made it vulnerable to undesired activation. NEW YORK TIMES
The worlds wealthiest family moved $48 billion of Walmart Inc. stock to a different holding company in an action that may signal future share sales and bolster their philanthropy. Walton Enterprises LLC, the main investment entity of the retailers founding clan, transferred about 15 percent of Walmarts outstanding shares to the Walton Family Holdings Trust, according to regulatory filings last week. The shift of 415 million shares represented about 29 percent of the shares held by Walton Enterprise. This entity now owns about 1 billion shares. BLOOMBERG NEWS
Facebook Inc. named two new directors, appointing Tracey Travis, chief financial officer of Este Lauder Cos., and longtime McKinsey & Co. executive Nancy Killefer at a time when the boards role at the social media company is under intense scrutiny. The addition of the two women, announced in a statement Monday, makes Facebooks board 40 percent female. The directors are joining the technology giant at a time of turmoil, as regulators and lawmakers question whether the company has monopoly powers and whether its advertising business relies too much on users personal data. BLOOMBERG NEWS
Apple Inc.s iPhone shipments plunged more than 60 percent last month, according to official Chinese data, as the coronavirus forced the technology giant to close stores in the worlds largest smartphone market. Shipments dropped to about 494,600 units from year-earlier levels, according to Bloomberg calculations based on monthly data from the China Academy of Information and Communications Technology, a government think tank. Chinas February overall mobile phone shipments slid 56 percent year-on-year to 6.4 million units, said CAICT. Apple has been reopening its retail stores in China, trying to rebound from a sales hit tied to the coronavirus. Towards the end of last month, 29 of 42 stores in the country had resumed operations. BLOOMBERG NEWS
Aon agreed to buy Willis Towers Watson in an almost $30 billion transaction that combines the worlds second- and third-biggest insurance brokerages. The all-stock deal, the largest ever for the industry, comes almost exactly a year after previous talks between the two companies broke down. Aon chief executive Greg Case and chief financial officer Christa Davies will lead the combined company, according to a statement Monday. Brokerages, which help connect businesses looking for coverage with insurers, have been aggressively merging to diversify, boost commissions, and serve customers who increasingly want to deal with fewer intermediaries. Marsh & McLennan Cos.. the largest broker, bought Jardine Lloyd Thompson Group last year for $5.7 billion. Willis Towers was itself formed in 2016 in an $8.9 billion merger. BLOOMBERG NEWS
A Stanford University professor and stem cell pioneer whose first job in science paid $25 a month is poised to receive a $191 million windfall from the sale of the immunotherapy biotech firm he cofounded. Irv Weissman, 80, owns 4.2 percent of Forty Seven, which Gilead Sciences agreed to buy for about $4.9 billion, a remarkable amount considering the companys market value was less than $250 million just five months ago. Forty Seven is named for a molecule found on healthy and cancerous cells that emits a dont eat me signal that allows cells to go undetected by the immune system. Working in their Stanford lab, Weissman, fellow founder Ravindra Majeti, and Siddhartha Jaiswal identified the role of CD47 proteins in the progression of cancer stem cells into a more malignant form. BLOOMBERG NEWS
US natural gas terminal developer Tellurian Inc. has cut roughly 40 percent of its workforce in a massive restructuring effort aimed at slashing costs and rescuing a struggling, $29 billion export project. The Houston-based company founded by shale gas pioneer Charif Souki laid off as many as 70 workers, according to people familiar with the situation. The company could also put off a final decision on whether to build the Driftwood liquefied natural gas export terminal in Louisiana by 12 to 18 months, said one of the people, who asked to not be identified because the information isnt yet public. BLOOMBERG NEWS
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Target to limit purchases of hand sanitizer, disinfecting wipes - The Boston Globe
Posted: February 2, 2020 at 2:45 am
It is well understood that eating a healthy, balanced diet is essential to living a long life, with certain foods offering protection against life-threatening health complications. With the spotlight placed firmly on what foods you should embrace and avoid, less attention has been devoted to the frequency of eating and its impact on longevity.
Pearson continues: It's after this period of time that processes such as autophagy and stem cell generation are triggered.
Autophagy is the body's way of cleaning out damaged cells, in order to regenerate newer, healthier cells, according to Priya Khorana, PhD, in nutrition education from Columbia University.
According to Pearson, profound regenerative changes have been shown with periodic water-only fasting but consuming nothing but water for days on end can be challenging for many.
To circumvent this challenge, professor Valter Longo, who has spearheaded much of the research in the field of fasting and longevity, developed the concept of Fasting Mimicking Diets (FMDs).
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Fast Mimicking Diets mimics fasting by tricking your body into a fasted state, while eating specially designed plant-based mini meals, explains Pearson.
FMDs have been shown to promote multi-system regeneration, enhanced cognitive performance, and health span.
Clinical studies on three, five day FMD cycles, spread over three months, show a spike in circulating stem cells that lead to delayed ageing by promoting regeneration in multiple systems.
Body weight, BMI, total body fat, trunk fat, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol, insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF1) and C-Reactive Protein (a marker of inflammation) were significantly reduced, particularly in participants at risk for diseases.
Curiously, scientists from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and the Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, reported that health and longevity improved with increased fasting time, regardless of what the mice ate or how many calories they consumed.
According to the study's lead author, Rafael de Cabo, Ph.D., chief of the Translational Gerontology Branch of the NIA Intramural Research Program, scientists have studied the beneficial effects of caloric restriction for more than a century, but the impact of increased fasting times has recently come under closer scrutiny.
"Increasing daily fasting times, without a reduction of calories and regardless of the type of diet consumed, resulted in overall improvements in health and survival in male mice," said de Cabo.
He added: Perhaps this extended daily fasting period enables repair and maintenance mechanisms that would be absent in a continuous exposure to food."
MS BioSci grad awarded research grant for stem cell therapy for brain injuries – News at Louisiana Tech
Posted: September 22, 2019 at 12:46 am
Sean Berman, who earned his MS in Biological Sciences in 2015 from Louisiana Tech, has recently received a grant from the United States Air Force based on his MS research that focuses on traumatic brain injuries and the potential of stem cell therapy in remediating the associated loss in memory and motor coordination.
Berman is hopeful the research will actually aid in repairing the sort of damage to the brain that combat veterans might have experienced as the results of blasts and that football players might have experienced as the result of blows to the head.
His argument is a logical one.
When veterans are coming home from war, theyre being diagnosed with PTSD and treated as though they have a purely psychological problem, said Berman. Zero attention is being paid to the fact theyve had exposure to blasts, both in training and in combat, resulting in many traumatic brain injuries. The structural integrity of their brain is totally disrupted. To not attempt to repair the structural tissue damage and treat it only as a psychological case is like putting a fresh paint job on a high rise thats on the verge of collapse.
Based on work hes been involved with at Tech, along with some clinical work hes done since, we can see that stem cells can help repair this damaged tissue, he said. The goal of this SBIR (Small Business Innovation Research) grant project is to take military personnel diagnosed with severe PTSD, provide stem cell therapy via an IV infusion, and then follow up with typical PSTD verbal tests that are issued at the VA, but also use an advanced assay (test) to measure discrete amounts of neuro-inflammatory markers that can be found in the peripheral blood.
We are partnering with the company, Quanterix, that has equipment that can measure these proteins at a very precise level, so much so that we can correlate it to the severity of the brain injury and hopefully show improvement in that injury over time, Berman said. If successful, we can extend the impact of this research to the public and other groups prone to concussive injury, such as NSF football players.
Earning the grant an Air Force AFWERX SIBR grant is no small accomplishment. The SIBR program is a highly competitive program that encourages domestic small businesses to engage in both Federal Research and Research and Development that has commercialization potential. AFWERX allows the Air Force to engage across industry, academia, and non-traditional contributors to create transformative opportunities and foster an Air Force culture of innovation. The ultimate aim is to solve problems and enhance the effectiveness of the Air Force.
Berman went to Amherst College undergrad and played football there, so he has some experience with head trauma. When he came to Tech with a year of eligibility left, he was given the opportunity to walk on at Tech as a graduate student.
A couple days after I showed up at Tech for Fall Camp, the NFL settled its concussion lawsuit with the NFLPA (National Football League Players Association) for $765 million, a number thats since been upwardly revised to nearly $1 billion, he said. Definitely a hot topic that was all over the news. Everyones initial reaction was, We need to change the game. Make it safer. End football. Take away tackling.
Berman was perplexed, he said, that no one was saying, We need to find a treatment for concussions.
If you roll your ankle in soccer, there are a handful of different treatment options and protocols, Berman said. If you concuss your brain in football, you simply rest until you get better. It didnt make sense to me that the players, trainers, and a medical team would actively work to treat an ankle sprain, but when it came to your brain, the answer was sleep and rest. So I thought itd be a good idea to study concussions while at Tech and hopefully find a solution and viable treatment option. I think we did that.
Bermans research at Tech was conducted under the guidance of Dr. David K. Mills, professor of Biological Sciences and Biomedical Engineering at Tech. Today, he is back in his hometown of Santa Monica, California working with a team of more than 500 doctors across the United States and internationally who are doing stem cell research.
The majority of the work is being done clinically, looking at restoring all kinds of damaged tissue naturally with stem cells, Berman said. We collect and analyze data on thousands of patients, trying to optimize the therapies to figure out which patients are the best candidates, which routes of stem cell administration are most effective, and what complimentary therapies are required, if any.
Its been a lot of fun, he said, and were seeing some life-changing results.
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MS BioSci grad awarded research grant for stem cell therapy for brain injuries - News at Louisiana Tech
Posted: September 15, 2019 at 10:42 am
I received my PhD in cell biology from Tulane University before attending LSU Medical School, so for many years Ive had a fascination with the clinical use of stem cells to repair the human body. The work were able to do now at Louisiana Regenerative Medicine Center affords me that opportunity, and Ive been able to experience first-hand the benefits to our patients of this exciting new medical technology.
Dr. Chris Trevino joins the Louisiana Regenerative Medical Center bringing vast knowledge and background in clinical medicine, basic sciences and physician leadership. Dr. Trevino received his PhD from Tulane University in cell biology and has published numerous peer reviewed articles
During the past 18 years, in addition to his practice, Dr. Trevino has participated in a variety of community activities including development of a paramedic program for the Gonzales Fire Department and currently is the medical director for Ascension Parish first responders. He was asked to be the Medical Director of the Louisiana Emergency Response Network, which is a statewide trauma network. Dr. Trevino has been involved in physician leadership throughout his career.
University of California, Santa Barbara, B.S. Biology, 1986
Tulane University, Master of Science, Cell and Molecular Biology, 1991
Tulane University, Doctorate of Philosophy, Cell and Molecular Biology, 1991
Louisiana State University School of Medicine, M.D., 1996
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Medical Team Louisiana RMC
Posted: September 7, 2019 at 4:28 pm
Stem cell therapy has actually ended up being a popular dispute in the global medical scene. This extremely questionable therapy has received combined viewpoints from numerous stakeholders in the healthcare market and has also brought in the interest of political leaders, religious leaders and the general population at large. Stem cell treatment is considered a revolutionary treatment for people suffering from a large range of degenerative conditions. Some common questions concerning this therapy are addressed listed below.
Are you a stem cell therapy provider in Baton Rouge LA 70833? Contact us for more information about joining our website.
Stem cells can be referred to as blank state or non-specialized cells that have the ability to become customized cells in the body such as bone, muscle, nerve or organ cells. This suggests that these unique cells can be used to restore or establish a wide variety of broken cells and tissues in the body. Stem cell treatment is for that reason a treatment that focuses on achieving tissue regeneration and can be utilized to treat health conditions and illnesses such as osteoarthritis, degenerative disc disease, spinal cord injury, muscular degeneration, motor nerve cell illness, ALS, Parkinsons, heart problem and much more.
Being a treatment that is still under research, stem cell therapy has not been totally accepted as a viable treatment alternative for the above discussed health conditions and diseases. A great deal of studio is currently being carried out by scientists and medical experts in numerous parts of the world to make this treatment sensible and efficient. There are nevertheless numerous constraints enforced by governments on studio including embryonic stem cells.
Currently, there havent been many case studies performed for this form of treatment. Nevertheless, with the few case studies that have been performed, among the significant issues that has actually been raised is the increase in a clients threat of establishing cancer. Cancer is triggered by the quick reproduction of cells that tend not to pass away so easily. Stem cells have actually been connected with comparable growth aspects that might result in formation of tumors and other malignant cells in clients.
Contact us for more information about stem cell therapy in Baton Rouge LA 70833
Stem cells can be drawn out from a young embryo after conception. These stem cells are commonly referred to as embryonic stem cells. After the stem cells are extracted from the embryo, the embryo is terminated. This is basically one of the significant causes of debate in the field of stem cell research study. Lots of people suggest that termination of an embryo is dishonest and undesirable.
Stem cells can still be gotten through other methods as they can be discovered in the blood, bone marrow and umbilical cords of adult humans. Typical body cells can likewise be reverse-engineered to become stem cells that have actually limited capabilities.
New studio has nevertheless revealed promise as scientists aim at developing stem cells that do not form into tumors in later treatment phases. These stem cells can for that reason successfully transform into other kinds of specialized cells. This therapy is for that reason worth investigating into as numerous clients can gain from this innovative treatment.
Need a stem cell provider close to Baton Rouge LA 70833
Main address:Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 70833
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Stem Cell Baton Rouge Louisiana 70833
Posted: May 11, 2019 at 1:50 pm
While pursuing his doctorate degree, he served as an instructor of mathematics at Morehouse College. Following graduation, he joined the faculty at Tulane University, where he pursued research related to heat transfer, fluid dynamics, energy efficiency, and renewable energy. In 2002, he was promoted to Associate Professor with tenure. Mackies eleven-year academic career ended in June 2007, when Tulane University disbanded the engineering school in response to financial hardship induced by Hurricane Katrina. During 2004-2005 academic year, Mackie was a visiting professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Michigan, where he performed research on fuel cells. He enjoyed a respected academic career, before refocusing his career on entrepreneurship, consulting and professional speaking.
Following the catastrophic Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005, former Louisiana Governor Kathleen Blanco appointed Dr. Mackie to the thirty-three member board of the Louisiana Recovery Authority (LRA), the guiding agency to lead the state's rebuilding efforts. Possessing instant social, political, cultural, and technical credibility, Mackie was featured prominently in Spike Lees HBO Katrina documentary, When The Levees Broke: A Requiem in Four Parts (HBO 2006) and its successor If God Is Willing and Da Creek Don't Rise (HBO 2010). He has since appeared on numerous national and local news shows including the PBS News Hour with Jim Lehrer, and The Tom Joyner Morning Show. In 2006, Mackie received international acclaim during a visit to Kuwait as an ambassador of the LRA and the guest of the U.S. Embassy in Kuwait, appearing on Good Morning Kuwait and in numerous international Arab newspapers. Mackie accompanied a Louisiana delegation to the Netherlands participating in an information exchange on water management and flow control.
Most recently, Louisiana Governor John Bel Edwards appointed Mackie to the Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority (CPRA). The CPRA was established as the single state entity with authority to articulate a clear statement of priorities and to focus development and implementation efforts to achieve comprehensive coastal protection for Louisiana. Governor Edwards also appointed Mackie to The Louisiana Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Advisory Council (LaSTEM). LaSTEM was established to coordinate and oversee the creation, delivery, and promotion of STEM education program; to increase student interest and achievement in the fields of STEM; to ensure the alignment of education, economic development, industry, and workforce needs; and to increase the number of women who graduate from a postsecondary institution with a STEM degree or credential.
In 2009, then Louisiana Governor Bobby Jindal appointed Dr. Mackie to the Louisiana Council on the Social Status of Black Boys and Black Men. The board elected Mackie to chair position where he led the states effort to create policy and programs to positively impact the quality of life for black males and families in the state of Louisiana. Committed to community service, Mackie is an active member of the National Speaker Association and the 100 Black Men of Metro New Orleans.
Mackie is formerly a partner and Senior Vice-President of Golden Leaf Energy (GLE). GLE is an innovative, renewable energy company that manufactures lubricants and methyl esters (biodiesel). Utilizing an integrated product development platform and industry leading production technology, GLE manufacturers and distributes renewable lubricants for drilling applications. Golden Leaf Energy also distributes quality methyl esters for a variety of other applications. GLE owns and operates a multi-feedstock biorefinery in located in southeast Louisiana.
Mackie continues in his role as President and CEO of the Channel ZerO Group LLC, an educational and professional development consulting company he co-founded in 1992. He has presented to numerous civic and educational institutions, government entities, professional association, and businesses of every size and industrial focus. Through his travels and online mentoring presence, Mackie reaches millions of students and professionals annually.
Most recently, Dr. Mackie founded STEM NOLA is a non-profit organization founded to expose, inspire and engage communities about the opportunities in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM). STEM NOLA designs and delivers activities, programs and events that bring inspiration, motivation and training to all STEM stakeholders (especially students) across entire communities. Since December 2013, STEM NOLA has engaged over 11,000 most under-served K-12 New Orleans students in hands-on STEM project based activities. Over 80% of participants receive free or reduce lunch vouchers and thus free admission, and 45% have been females.
Dr. Mackies inspirational memoir A View from the Roof: Lessons for Life and Business has been adopted as educational course material by numerous secondary and college teachers throughout the country. His newest book Grandma's Hands: Cherished Moments of Faith and Wisdom was published in 2012 and recently received a silver medal in the prestigious Living Now Book Awards.
Dr. Mackie is a devoted husband to his wife, Tracy, and father to his two sons, Myles Ahmad and Mason Amir.Please visit calvinmackie.com.
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Meet Dr. Mackie Stem Nola
Posted: March 7, 2019 at 8:44 am
Stem cell therapy, or regenerative medicine, is part of a growing conservative treatment option for patients wishing to avoid surgical intervention.Helping Our Spinal Disc Heal Itself
The International Spine Institute, serving Baton Rouge and New Orleans, Louisiana, is excited to offer stem cell therapy, an innovative and truly least invasive treatment option for patients suffering from low back pain. The growing field known as regenerative medicine includes the use of your bodys own stem cells to treat injuries to your spinal discs caused by degenerative disc disease.
Were just the facilitators helping the body to heal itself. Sometimes the best way to fix something is to put things in place and let the body do all the work. Marco Rodriguez, MD, Orthopedic Spine Surgeon
If you answered yes to any of these questions, continue to read more about what stem cells are and how they may be helpful for you. Call us to see if you could be a candidate for stem cell therapy at the International Spine Institute.
Call (225) 313-4700 Now
Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that can become specialized types of cells. There are two types of stems cells: embryonic or adult stem cells. Embryonic stem cells are derived from a human fetus. Because of ethical concerns with these types of stem cells, they are not used in our practice. Adult stem cells can be derived from your own body. Adult stem cells used to treat musculoskeletal issues are known as mesenchymal stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into cartilage cells, fat cells, and bone cells.
Mesenchymal stem cells coordinate the healing process by creating scar then sealing and healing the injury. Since there is an inadequate blood supply in your spinal disc, stem cells do not readily get to a painful disc tear in order to heal and seal it. Therefore, using a sterile technique, we harvest your own stem cells from your bodys bone marrow located in your hip bone (iliac bone). These cells are concentrated and reintroduced to the injured or torn disc, in order to seal and heal the disc, resulting in diminished and decreased pain.
Regenerative medicine or stem cell therapy offers an excellent option for treating severe back pain and disability due to painful spinal conditions, like discogenicback pain. Historically, therapies did not exist to slow or regenerate the degenerative disc process, often leaving surgery as the only option. In select patients, there is now hope of a less invasive regenerative disc therapy that may be able to seal and heal the degenerated spinal disc.
In the United States, greater than 400,000 lumbar micro-discectomies and 500,000 spine fusions are performed each year for lumbar degenerative disc symptoms. Physicians and patients alike prefer long-term healing from these spine-related conditions without surgery. At ISI, we are currently able to offer a stem cell therapy option for qualified candidates.
Stem cell therapy performed by our surgeon, Dr. Rodriguez, is an innovative and Least Invasive way to use your bodys own stem cells to treat chronic painful spinal conditions and disc injuries, that have not improved following conservative, non-surgical treatments. Many patients that visit us have tried all types of treatments as alternatives to invasive spinal surgery.
Currently, the stem cell therapy conducted by Dr. Marco Rodriguez isan individualized treatment and is considered investigational.
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Stem Cell Therapy | International Spine Institute - Baton ...
Posted: February 25, 2019 at 2:43 pm
Embryonic stem cells, on their face value, are truly beautiful and amazing part of human development since they are the foundational cells for every cell in the human body! And because of the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells and the corresponding supposed hope for medicinal use, researchs have sought to isolate these hESC. However, because theses stem cells are a necessary part of the embryos development, isolating the hESC necesitates the destruction of the embryo, which turns what was beautiful into a disgrace.
In human embryonic stem cell research (hESCR), the beauty of the human blastocyst is destroyed for the sake of using these hESC to treat other diseases. The stem cells of the human blastocyst are removed, leaving the blastocyst dead and unable to continue its maturation process. The image at the right indicates this process.
These cells are then placed in a pietri dish and are encouraged to multiply undifferentiated until a stem cell line is created. Then, these lines are either immediately frozen for later experimentation, or they are experimented on to see how they differentiate into specific cells, at what rate the differentiation is done, and how the differentiation can be controlled.
While many scientists see hESCR as the holy grail of medicine, it is alarming to note that neither any treatments or cures have materalized through the use of hESCR. In fact, they omit that their is no timeframe as to when treatments or cures will materialize.
However, there are significant problems with hESCR:
Because of these two problems, researchers need to research more to diagnose these problems. To research more, scientists need more human embryonic stem cells, which, of course, means more destrution of embryos to obtain the stem cells.
Lets break down how scientists isolate hESC.
1)In Vitro Fertilization: in In Vitro Fertilization, many eggs are taken from the mothersbody and placed in a pietri dish with sperm of the father. Many eggs are fertilized in this controlled process to increase the chances of successful development. However, only one fertilized egg is placed within the womb of the mother to be carried to term. The rest of the fertilized eggs, being in property of the father and mother, are either frozen for later use or are donated to scientists for experiment. These scientists, then, let the zygote develop into a blastocyst. At the blasotcyst stage, they strip the stem cells from the human, leaving the blastocyst dead.
2)Cloning (aka Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer SCNT): In cloning, an ovum or egg is taken from the ovary of a women. The nucleus (DNA) of the egg is removed leaving a denucleated ovum. Then, the nucleus of a normal cell (a cell with the full DNA code of46 chromosomes, such as a ski cell) is removed and inserted into the denucleated egg. This leaves an egg with 46 chromosomes. This egg with a full DNA is shocked and the 46 chromosomes begin to divide, exactly as a egg in a mothers fallopian tube would upon fertilization by the sperm.
This newly created zygotes cells divide and develops on the same path as the egg fertilized by the sperm, meaning in 7-14 days it is called a blastocyst. At this point, this cloned embryo can either be implanted in a surrogate mothers womb and carried to term, or it can be stripped of its embryonic stem cells and left to die. (mcc video- 5:49-7:31) Read about the problems with cloning by clicking here.
All this put together results in a rejection of embryonic stem cell research.
Does Louisiana Law Ban Embryonic Stem Cell Research?
Through Adult Stem Cell Research, an ethical and successful method exists that simply replaces the need for hESCR. In our discussion of Adult Stem Cell Research, let us show you why we believe all people can be united towards cures through ethical means.
Posted: February 12, 2019 at 9:46 am
The wheres, whats and hows When you are having a baby, there are dozens of decisions to make. One of the most important things you will have to decide is whether to bank your babys cord blood. In order to make the decision, which is best for you and your family, it is essential to Continue Reading
The research If you are expecting a baby then no doubt youve heard the phrase cord blood banking quite often. Parents today are bombarded with choices practically from the moment of conception, most of which pertain to the babys birth and immediate care following. Cord blood banking is no exception and you may have several Continue Reading
Typical costs associated with cord blood banking and storage Most expectant couples want to do everything possible to protect the health of their newborn child. New developments in medicine have made it possible to use the stem cells found in a babys umbilical cord to develop new treatments to fight diseases like leukemia. The babys Continue Reading
Your babys own stem cells from the normally discarded umbilical cord Most pregnant women and expectant parents have heard about cord blood banking and its ability to store cord blood stem cells for later use. For those of you who havent, cord blood banking uses the latest in technology to extract and preserve all the Continue Reading
The options for cord blood banking in Louisiana are as good if not better than many states
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Helping You Decide | Louisiana Cord Blood Banking