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Johnny Tesone & The GeoVortex Journey | To Unlocking The Secrets Of The Earth – Daily Scanner

Posted: August 31, 2021 at 2:11 am

There is much to be said of the discovery of new and vital information for the earth and its long-winding history. Scientists around the world are enamored and excited by the prospects that are hidden in plain sight around the globe. New technology, such as Google Earth, is allowing scientists to discover clues and patterns that can result in incredible convictions that will shape our planets story and change our future.

Johnny Tesone is one such journeyman. His expertise in the field of geology and an epiphany in the Wind River Range set him on a journey that has led to monumental discoveries. Hes successfully analyzed fossils and patterns that are not quite typical of this earth and has spent the better part of the last few years determining their origin.

Using his broad scientific capability and experience in the field of Geology, he has since commissioned a docuseries and scientific papers that he hopes will shed light on one of the many mysteries of our time.

We had a chance to sit down with the scientist and get his thoughts on the research he is conducting, the importance of collaboration, as well as the negative politicization of science, and the ways we can combat it together.

Q: Hello Johnny, thanks for taking the time to speak with us today. lets start with the big question: What is GeoVortex?

Thank you for the opportunity. GeoVortex is both a company and personal brand, borne from my life events that launched intense research over the last year. First, in July 2020, in the Wind River Range, Wyo. I was touched by a physical, super-peaceful force. I call it a vortex feeling on the Wind River that day in a magnificent geologic setting that forever changed my life. There it wasa totem cliff face, images and lines that displayed a secret earth story. The event has propelled me into finding a storm of revolutionary discoveries of earth, life and Astro-science phenomenon.

That day lit up my world, providing me a new astounding vision, with an ever-deepening comprehension learned at a spellbinding pace. This is GeoVortex.

The discovery material is expertly documented for the ages in the video series Secrets of the Winds. Its 9 chapter titles are cleverly outlined with never-seen earth symbols deciphered along with all the other stunning footage for the viewers to follow my trails. This is something Einstein and DaVinci would be proud of, and I know the world can now see this as I do for, I found an alternative natural world on earth.

Q: What are some of your scientific discoveries about?

It is best to start from where the dots started connecting so that you can understand the chain of events and pace. The video primer Ground Zero episode details the find of the totem outcrops with images, figures, which led to mapping several large concentric, angular anomalies (UFOs Unidentified Fossilized Objects) 70 miles north to south across the Wind River Range, Wyo. I located some impact craters and non-human dams in the area that I four-wheeled to, mapped on Google Earth the night before. The surface was littered with platy (consisting of plates or flaky layers of soil or mineral formations) to round, dense rocks. One site, there was a ground spring bubbling, of a carbonate ooze, with eggshell hard outer diameter where I filmed an active burrower species episode. Ensued by weeks of extensive microscopy of the impact samples, I knew within a day, however, the fossils, the carbonate wasnt typical of this earth. I identified a fractal alien mineral matrix, in an earth-bound transport and named it Exterranium. The taxonomy logic allowed me to keep the material compartmentalized as it is a best practice to have naming standards for the voluminous material with more named species to come.

Last August, I discovered the premier fossil. Its a 1cm. embryonic encrusted specimen and its the rock star of all fossils, I believe, for it means a much bigger picture of the world and the universe. It was found, aged at a known Cambrian Precambrian unconformity (a break-in time in an otherwise continuous rock record) boundary estimated greater than 500 million years old. I creatively used the fossil image comparing it to a skeletal image and found it anatomically proportionate to a dissected body photo of a 17-inch (non-human or animal) mummy photo found in 1932 Wyoming near the Wind River range by two gold miners. My head was spinning, I anxiously reached out to world-renown former University of Wyoming anthropology professor Dr. George Gill about his claims and any advice with the American Museum of Natural History or Harvard archives, but he has since retired.

This is an extant species; Exterran Infinitas Nimerigarus meaning Exterran (not of the earth), Infinitas (ever-living), Nimerigarus (Little People). EIN has huge, strong, long hands, a strong torso, big eyes, eyelids like sharks, a large mouth for maximum water intake and propulsion intake with a flexible twisting body made to be a drill bit. The teeth must be seen to be believed and are just incredible. The ultra-recluse, sub-surface super mineral miner is terraforming the land. It is the ultimate intelligent worker species programmed by the master species to be announced in the video series. EIN creates its energy using an ingenious water-fuel cell converting electrochemical energy to biomechanical power, programmed growth, and ever working with quantum connectivity.

You wont believe its blow-dart defense mechanism that Ill show in the jawbone parts and animation. It ties into legendary stories of the creatures affinity with arrows as told by the Native American tribes. I was affected myself and I thought at that moment I was done with the research because I was so terrified of the pain of the alien weapon darts. That day I had taken apart a small EIN carcass ball with 3 smaller skeletons, hair and microscopic particles apparently fell on my armchair as I noticed the acute stinging and inflammation of uncountable, small red puncture spots from elbow to wrist. I treated it with hypochlorous acid (HCIO) daily, a field-wound disinfectant and the wounds healed, but this period last fall jolted me into a new realm of respect and a primitive allure of the creature. This species alone is a new science frontier subject, and I am producing the glossary with the fossils, anatomy, and animation, to be known as Einthropology.

I have found EIN skeletons from 1 in. tall to around 3 ft. tall and SEM tested an EIN leg bone: Oxygen 35%, Calcium 22%, Carbon 16%, Phosphorus 11%, Zircon 7% including some Nitrogen, Silicon, and trace Aluminum. The science data regarding this species seems to be forgotten or hidden and has been a mystery until now until as my work brings legendary stories to life. I live in a daily awe of holding the power of supreme technology billions of years ahead of mankind.

The realization of that very first fossils significance was heavy to process, and I focused my earliest thoughts, fantasizing how the complexities of physics, biomechanics, biochemistry space travel were found in the geological record. How on earth can this be conceptualized, written as a case study when there are hundreds of cases? Should it be drawn out as a 3D cross-section model to somehow convey the epicenter of revelations? Perhaps, but I truly believe this is a 6D-9D model.

Did they only land in the shallow warmest, parts of the worlds ocean, drop the eggs, as in an alien metal matrix, as a plan to change the chemistry of our oceans? Did the ships land to stay for billions of years? Yes, this is really their planet then.

I believe they experimented on earth by landing directly over on erupting volcanoes, then the earth entirely commencing the coherent takeover, stabilizing geochemical reactions over eons that it needed to transform the earth perfectly from the abundant elemental chemistry.

EIN is colonialized by Exterranium for carrying out its mission on the earths surface by first assembling the necessary electrical currents and power grids scaled to any size anywhere in the world. Displayed on Google Earth by the copper (+) and lead (-) element-colored terminals, eddy currents and large capacitor induction cells all the while this supreme design optimizes time, gravity, magnetics, and water forces producing a perpetual energy field source to re produce their superalloy metals re-mined back from their ancient ship landings.

The video Cobalt Crater illustrates a 35-year time-lapse flyover of a large impact crater isolating the super alloying processes in a defined, remote non-human natural setting. In this video the viewer can visualize the electrical and physical material change developing over time in the crater. Some of the technologies evident displayed are include sintering capacitor banks, powdering metallurgy, electro slag welding-moulding, mechanical annealing to rolling. The perfection and beauty of the large Cobalt blue metal alloy stacks and other metals like Nickel bursting into brilliant glowing plasma rockets are stunning discovery highlights. This is how EIN manipulates the soils over their time, creating a science materials masterpiece for all the world to see and why I believe they live over 50,000 years.

By utilizing earths vast oceans and high-energy inner core, and with no time limit variable, Exterranium has perfected itself to ultimate competitive advantage, to dominate the earth as a supreme species. It is here to stay, we can hold it in our hands, its a forever global destiny, and way beyond human time. This species has engineered a Return Burn chapter in the series, its the master plan to exploit the earths resources, to remanufacture, relaunch and return, again to proliferate more galaxies with the most favorable water, geological, high-energy reactions, such as those found on earth.

Start with YouTube, subscribe and get all the chapters released in 3 sets. It is best to study all of them to have a baseline of the series (click here).

Q: For the readers who arent as well versed in Geology, could you give us a quick breakdown of what youre searching for in your journey?

Geologists are multi-science and engineering problem solvers, who utilize chemistry, math, engineering, biology, physics and even anthropology to be the most qualified earth investigators. Im equipped with hardware, software, and knowledge of all the tools to conduct the search and to provide evidence.

I search for both microscopic (>120um) to large, earth-forming clues left on Google Earth to always ask the questions of how, when, and why. This helps determine the conclusion to earths surface and subsurface changes, geological ages, paleoclimates, water influence and the recorded formations as a start.

I found repeatable colors, crystals, concentric to angular and mechanical surface features including large remote complex mining, and prolific materials processing sites. I tested the hand samples with magnetics, specific first gravity, and hardness indicators. I conducted simple but definitive water-solubility experiments to performing sophisticated scanning electron microscopy (SEM) tests critical for the chemical and reactive signatures. The tests have proved to be invaluable pieces of the geochemistry puzzle in the discovery project.

I have felt, seen and documented the energy fields with jaw-dropping images of planes flying over at ground and ocean levels. I have spotted many such objects and disappearing and cloaking and the video, The Cloakers, is the highlight reel of most of the planes I found transforming and undetected by humans until now.

I even have this superalloy specimen; it came to be in a supernatural way in the field and Ill show how in the series. I know this is a coherent, supreme quantum world in full display for those who earnestly seek. They have been here, are here for a grand purpose, as the fabric of our entire planet is a superalloy species.

Its no wonder weve reported seeing so many UFO sightings, earth is a highly charged, intergalactic superalloy re-mining depot and a quantum energy portal. Many scientists already concluded this is a metallic universe and so this disclosure is more evidencing advancing our knowledge of earth, solar system and beyond. Recently, I started looking at the NASA photos of Mars, Mercury, and Venus and again, I am reassured more so that the

same impactor evidence on earth Ive identified has also been photographed by NASA. I know space exploration should take on a new meaning with this data.

Q: Would you say you have an endgame goal in mind for GeoVortex?

The endgame is an interesting question. The endgame is we all win. I always play to win so with this stellar research I want it to be the best, most impactful research in yearsperhaps a Nobel prize in science is the endgame.

I envision many scientists, physicists, technologists utilizing the data for decades for a better understanding of the quantum relationship of life, light, energy, space, and time. Mitigating and long-term futuristic solutions from findings that should lead to solving the challenges before us today: sustaining clean water, developing clean energy, forecasting extreme changes, and exploiting the best structural designs for advancing earth civilizations.

These are the Climate Changers.

Q: Can you please explain what certain discoveries youre hoping to find?

I honestly didnt embark on this voyage as a typical researcher hypothesizing or hoping to find a certain discovery in a narrow field of study. Im deeply connected to the natural environment given decades as a geologist, fly-fisherman, and outdoorsman, learning the subtleties of nature and science. At this stage of my journey, nothing surprises me anymore as a scientist or as a person, but dont confuse this with raw amazement, because it is daily that Im captivated about what I have discovered.

Someone was going to eventually find this, and it is me so theres purpose of responsibility and accomplishment to share this vividly and abundantly, so Im overly compelled since its explainable, plausible content now that I have reconciled internally with real results.

Maybe its to find the fountain of youth. Or we all take off like in in the movie Cocoon!

I hope to learn much more, to be asked, indeed welcomed by them to investigate their material mining ship engineering sites and travel on their ships to really learn their fascinating rocket engineering design. Ultimately, I would like to know where this species came from. Ive described a feeling as being in Andromeda Strain, Fantastic Voyage and then theres movie Contact when signals are loud and clear. This has been quite an OMG year!

Of course, Im hoping to find out soon what this all means for me. Is this the time, a major shift to tap the science, to learn and implement their technology solutions for humans?

Q: Whats your take on the recent history of science and facts becoming more contested than ever before? Has this impacted your resolve as a Geologist?

This is a great question and has been topic of mind for a while.

Geologists, and all scientists, should never face political cynicism but we must both support and challenge each other. Facts make the truth that builds trust in our own lives as we are real stewards and leaders, to deposit more than we take in through life. These are non-debatable rules to me.

Scientists have been persecuted throughout history and I remind myself of this while Im binging on Google Earth or head down in the microscope hours on end taking pictures for the history books, but I know its going to be extremely difficult to express what infinity means and looks like to most of the world. Creating the video series is the best way I could organize the data and to let the pictures say it all backed up by my personal journey.

To begin to understand a new geological earth model, we must start with the great bombardment period 4.5-3.8 billion years ago. This period is a leading indicator of solving the Great Unconformity mystery, and my work will challenge the traditional experts. However, we will now be able to explain the missing 1.5 billion years of the geological record. The GeoVortex data produced will make the most plausible and geoscientific, Astro-geological sense model to date. When you see what I have, you can be very confident in the conclusions. It was not the microbial dominated primordial earth creation model or a sustained non-active period as some geologists claim.

Weve been taught certain ways to correlate and map sequential formations and geomorphological features but, in my experience, when you can learn to look at things differently, the things youre looking at will change because perception is an aperture, the portal to enhance learning. It seems this curiosity learning is accelerating, and Im more driven than ever searching for more wonders, but also this comes with humility in my nature to throttle myself at times.

I recall a day in June, it was early in the morning when I was on Google Earth and flew right over to the Arabian desert to find this stunningly perfect 1800 x 1300 solar system map. Its in 3D, shaped with elliptical orbit spheres, the planets are aligned exactly in color and size

and Saturn with its rings! It depicts the Asteroid belt, the Kuiper belt, the Milky Way, and a new system way beyond.

As part of my video production, I incorporate the best music to express my thoughts, and portray the gravity of the discovery. That night I found the epic classical suite The Planets, with Gustav Holst as the composer. This is public domain music, so I incorporated the art pieces in my series. I know this discovery is divine when Im able to so profoundly express and share the stellar work alongside one of the worlds most impactful artists as it seems it was composed just for this time.

There is also the concept of personal redemption, rejuvenation, the solemn trek stepping in as the stakeholder, an ambassador striving for some great humanity unification cause to comprehend and communicate what I have found, and then collaborate with the world.

Q: How important is collaboration with other scientific disciplines?

Collaboration with the STEM community is a very important aspect of the plan. I belong to a few geological groups; RMAG & WGA, and I am a member of the American Association of Advancement of Science (AAAS). The Deep Dive section and the website are geared for those people that want to step forward, who can collaborate and contribute in many ways. The amount of digital and material evidence that I have is a prime opportunity for serious researchers, universities, and private organizations to obtain the material library in rocks, skeletons and/or digital archives. I am very confident theres enough data to formulate a comprehensive global computational, predictive earth model to plan out better lives if humanly possible.

Q: What would help you further your goals?

Validation from top scientists and news outlets would help bring the Secrets of the Winds to the masses. I believe I am making history at the forefront of a new scientific breakthrough and that should interest many groups. Im inviting the worlds top researchers to examine what I have foundand critically assess its value and worth. This discovery is meant to be shared.

Q: Whats next on next for Johnny Tesone and GeoVortex?

I have a lot of incredible research. I am looking for the very best, straightforward way to release this information to the world for the greatest possible impact. My immediate goals are to:

Thank you, Johnny, for your time!

You can follow up with Johnny Tesone at geovortex.net or connect via Twitter, LinkedIn or Facebook. GeoVortex on YouTube here.

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Johnny Tesone & The GeoVortex Journey | To Unlocking The Secrets Of The Earth - Daily Scanner

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Billings Clinic Infusion Center | Billings, MT

Posted: May 6, 2020 at 9:45 am

When you or a loved one is diagnosed with a complex medication condition, there are a lot of decisions to make. At Billings Clinic, our expert team in the beautiful Infusion Center is there to help guide you every step of the way. Your medical providers are under one roof, to ensure coordinated treatment.

When visiting the Infusion Center, enjoy room for loved ones to visit, expansive views of the Rims and downtown, comfortable seating, and TVs. We even offer private rooms for those who need them.

Patients are able to come to the Billings Clinic Infusion Center for their treatments and injections seven days a week. Hours are 7:00 am to 7:00 pm on weekdays and 9:00 am to 1:00 pm on Saturdays, Sundays and holidays.

Chemotherapy patients are not the only patients treated at the Infusion Center. Patients with illnesses that require treatments using intravenous methods as well as patients that require any sort of injection are also treated at this location.

Treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells. Chemotherapy may be given alone or with other treatments, such as surgery, radiation therapy, or biotherapy.

Treatment that uses substances made from living organisms to treat a disease, including cancer as well as a variety of non-cancerous conditions. These drugs often times work by either stimulating or suppressing the immune system. Types of biotherapy include immunotherapy (such as vaccines, cytokines, and some antibodies), gene therapy, and some targeted therapy.

Treatment using drugs with antimicrobial properties to treat or prevent infection. These drugs work by killing or inhibiting the growth of specific bacteria and viruses.

Blood is typically transfused as individual parts.

Some drugs are given with a needle under the skin or into the muscle or fatty tissue. Examples of medications given by injection include products to stimulate blood cells, protect bone health, or affect hormone production.

Ten of the registered nurses at the Infusion Center are specially trained and competent to provide Therapeutic Plasma Exchange (TPE) services to both inpatients and outpatients.

TPE involves the process of apheresis (a medical procedure in which a persons blood is passed through a machine to separate out one particular component and return the remainder to the body). TPE is an effective treatment for a number of disorders such as:)

Stem cell transplant is the standard of care for certain types of cancers. This means it has been proven to provide the patient with the best outcome for treating their cancer. Stem cell transplant allows your physician to integrate the use of high dose chemotherapy with the strategies that preserve bone marrow function. Transplant expertise includes the use of mobilized peripheral blood stem cells and bone marrow growth factors to promote recovery from high dose chemotherapy.

Historically, cancer patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy have been required to enter the hospital for lengthy periods. Today, continuing advances in cancer research and treatment make it possible for patients to receive much of their treatment on a strictly-monitored outpatient basis. Working closely with your physician, the staff of this program will provide the prescribed therapy in the outpatient Infusion Center. You will only be hospitalized when absolutely necessary.

Billings Clinic Cancer Center offers the only FACT Accredited stem cell transplant program in Montana and Wyoming.

Learn more about Billings Clinic's Stem Cell Transplantation program.

During your treatment, members of the Cancer Center health care team may visit you including: doctors, nurses, social workers, chaplains, receptionists, patient care navigators, financial counselors, pharmacists, and others. This interaction ensures that patient and family needs are being met and allow us as a team to connect with our patients.

The registered nurses at the Infusion Center are specially trained and certified to give chemotherapy. They are required to pass the ONS Chemotherapy/Biotherapy course with renewal every two years. Many of the nurses have also passed a national certification exam to become Oncology Certified Nurses (OCN). This certification demonstrates their knowledge and commitment to continuing education and expertise in their field.

Pharmacists who specialize in IV infusions and chemotherapy are onsite Monday through Friday to prepare medications for patients as directed by their physician. Every patient is carefully monitored for the proper therapy and provided with drug information about potential interactions and side effects.

Families are encouraged to be with patients to participate in the education and care giving process. Light snacks and drinks are available for patients. Rooms are comfortable with lounge chairs and individual televisions.

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Billings Clinic Infusion Center | Billings, MT

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Science Becomes A Dividing Issue In Year Of Election And Pandemic – Wyoming Public Media

Posted: April 27, 2020 at 2:48 pm

It now seems apparent that COVID-19 will dominate American life for months to come, quite possibly through the national election in November.

That means the disease, and efforts to respond to it, will likewise dominate the 2020 campaign and make it largely about something it has never been about before.

That something is science.

It is hard to think of a time when hard science biology, virology, epidemiology has been so much the core of our political conflict. Issues from evolution to stem cells to vaccination have long been a part of our political conversation, but not at the forefront of presidential elections.

This virus crisis has largely taken over the political conversation. Americans are all learning new, polysyllabic vocabulary and complex truths about threats they cannot see.

And that is likely to bring out all of the culture's ambivalence about science.

Trust in science

Last summer, a Pew Research Center survey found that 86% of Americans expressed "a fair amount or a great deal of faith" that scientists act in their best interests.

But the survey's co-author told NPR, "It tends to be kind of soft support." In fact, only 48% were willing to say that medical doctors "make fair and accurate research statements and recommendations all or most of the time." And only 32% were willing to say as much for "medical research scientists."

A YouGov poll in April 2017 found an even less sanguine attitude, as reported in Scientific American. That measure found only 35% of Americans had "a lot of confidence" in scientists. A plurality (45%) had "a little," while those with "none at all" had grown substantially since YouGov polled the same question in 2013.

Little wonder then that political figures such as Texas Lt. Gov. Dan Patrick, a Republican, and media personalities such as Fox News' Tucker Carlson pounce on the difference between various projections of deaths from COVID-19.

They interpret lower death totals (thus far) as evidence that the threat was overblown, even though public health experts consider it proof that shutdowns and social distancing are working and note that the threat is not over.

Rejecting expertise

Scientific experts, like experts in general, have fared poorly in the populist atmosphere of the past decade in Europe and the United States.

"Voters say they reject expertise because experts, whom they think of as indistinguishable from governing elites, have failed them," writes Tom Nichols, a professor of national security affairs at the U.S. Naval War College.

Nichols published a book in 2017 called The Death of Expertise: The Campaign Against Established Knowledge and Why It Matters. Summing up his argument for Politico, Nichols observed that Americans have always had a healthy skepticism about "eggheads" of various kinds.

He says that skepticism renewed itself in the "social and political traumas" of the 1960s and 1970s. But since then, he argues, "Globalization and technological advances have created a gulf between people with enough knowledge and education to cope with these changes and people who feel threatened and left behind in the new world of the 21st century."

Lacking "scientific merit"

The plain fact is that for many, science is a source of wisdom but by no means the only one. There can be a "balancing" of science with religious teaching or humanistic ethics or what people may regard as their own common sense.

That is why so many Americans may identify with President Trump's overeagerness about potential drug therapies for COVID-19 that have worked on other diseases.

Trump's hopefulness for the antimalarial hydroxychloroquine, for example, was apparently not shared by one of the administration's own leading vaccine scientists, Richard Bright. Bright tried to limit broad use of the drug because its application lacked "scientific merit." As a result, he says, he was removed as director of the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority.

In a statement released by his attorneys last week, Bright sounded the alarm: "To combat this deadly virus, science, not politics or cronyism, has to lead the way."

Also this past week, the president stood at the podium of the White House briefing room and cast doubt on the survival of the coronavirus in the fall. He then deferred to his top scientific adviser on the question.

"We will have the virus in the fall," said Dr. Anthony Fauci of the National Institutes of Health.

Trump also insisted the head of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention had been misquoted about the difficulties of managing COVID-19 in the fall. Dr. Robert Redfield took the lectern to say he had not been misquoted.

But all this was prelude to the Thursday night stunner, when the president extended his embrace of "game-changer" therapy ideas to raising the question of whether injecting a disinfectant (which can kill the coronavirus on a surface) into a person could kill the virus (in reality, doing so would be toxic).

This prompted such immediate blowback from scientists, hospital personnel and even the makers of Lysol that the president later insisted he had made the comment sarcastically. And the next evening's briefing was cut off at just 22 minutes, with the president taking no questions.

A long-term struggle

The crisis is spreading through the body politic even as it spreads through the human population. It will stress both in myriad ways. Americans' conflicted relationship with science will play a role in how they deal with that stress.

For the moment, most are accepting the scientific approach of social distancing in service of a greater good. But there are rejections of stay-at-home orders in street protests and in some statehouses.

Saturday night, Trump repeated a line used to argue for reopening the country sooner rather than later: "Remember, the Cure can't be worse than the problem itself." He added, "Be careful, be safe, use common sense!"

The struggle has been joined, and it will likely outlast both this one campaign season and this one pandemic.

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Who’s Hit Hardest By COVID-19? Why Obesity, Stress And Race All Matter – Wyoming Public Media

Posted: April 19, 2020 at 11:46 am

As data emerges on the spectrum of symptoms caused by COVID-19, it's clear that people with chronic health conditions are being hit harder.

While many people experience mild illness, 89% of people with COVID-19 who were sick enough to be hospitalized had at least one chronic condition. About half had high blood pressure and obesity, according to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. And about a third had diabetes and a third had cardiovascular disease. So, what explains this?

"Obesity is a marker for a number of other problems," explains Dr. Aaron Carroll, a public health researcher at the Indiana University School of Medicine. It's increasingly common for those who develop obesity to develop diabetes and other conditions, as well. So, one reason COVID-19 is taking its toll on people who have obesity is that their overall health is often compromised.

But does obesity specifically affect the immune system? Perhaps.

Prior research has shown that people with obesity are less protected by the flu vaccine. They tend to get sicker from the respiratory disease even if they've been immunized. In fact, researchers have found that as people gain excess weight, their metabolism changes and this shift can make the immune system less effective at fighting off viruses.

"What we see with obesity is that these [immune] cells don't function as well,' says Melinda Beck, a health researcher at University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Basically, she explains, obesity throws off the fuel sources that immune cells need to function. "The [immune cells] are not using the right kinds of fuels," Beck says. And, as a result, the condition of obesity seems to "impair that critical immune response [needed] to deal with either the virus infection or [the ability] to make a robust response to a vaccine."

So this is one explanation as to why people with obesity seem more vulnerable to serious infection. But, there are many more questions about why some people are hit harder, including whether race is a factor.

The CDC found that 33% of people who've been hospitalized with COVID-19 are African American, yet only 13% of the U.S. population is African American. Some local communities have found a similar pattern in their data. Among the many (26) states reporting racial data on COVID-19, blacks account for 34% of COVID deaths, according to research from Johns Hopkins University.

This disproportionate toll can be partially explained by the fact that there's a higher prevalence of obesity, high blood pressure and diabetes among African Americans compared with whites.

And as Dr. Anthony Fauci of the National Institutes of Health said last week at a White House coronavirus task force briefing, this crisis "is shining a bright light on how unacceptable that is, because yet again, when you have a situation like the coronavirus, [African Americans] are suffering disproportionately."

There are several factors, including some genetic ones, that may make African Americans more vulnerable to COVID-19. "There have been a few studies that have pointed to African Americans potentially having genetic risk factors that make them more salt-sensitive," says Ren Robinson, a professor of chemistry who researches chronic disease at Vanderbilt University. This may increase the likelihood of high blood pressure, which, in turn, is linked to more serious forms of COVID-19. "It could be a contributing factor," she says, but there are likely multiple causes at play.

Another issue to consider, she says, may be high stress levels. She says when a person experiences racial discrimination, it can contribute to chronic stress. She points to several studies that link discrimination and stress to higher levels of inflammation among black adults. "And chronic stress can make one more vulnerable to infection because it can lower your body's ability to fight off an infection," she says.

Chronic stress is linked to poverty so this could be a risk factor for low-income communities. In fact, research has shown that people who report higher levels of stress are more likely to catch a cold, when exposed to a virus, compared with people who are not stressed.

According to a new survey from Pew Research Center, health concerns about COVID-19 are much higher among Hispanics and blacks in the U.S. While 18% of white adults say they're "very concerned" that they will get COVID-19 and require hospitalization, 43% of Hispanic respondents and 31% of black adults say they're "very concerned" about that happening.

And other aspects of structural racism could contribute to the elevated risk for black Americans.

"Every major crisis or catastrophe hits the most vulnerable communities the hardest," say Marc Morial, president and CEO of the National Urban League. And he points to several factors that help to explain the racial divide.

"Black workers are more likely to hold the kinds of jobs that cannot be done from home," Morial says. So, they may be more likely to be exposed to the virus, if they are working in places where it's difficult to maintain social distancing. In addition, he points to longstanding inequities in access to quality care.

"There also is bias among health care workers, institutions and systems that results in black patients ... receiving fewer medical procedures and poorer-quality medical care than white individuals," he says. He says an expansion of Medicaid into those states that still haven't expanded would be one effective policy to address these inequities.

The characteristics of the communities where people live could affect risk, too especially for those who live in low-income neighborhoods. The roots of chronic illness stem from the way people live and the choices that may or may not be available to them. People who develop the chronic illnesses that put them at higher risk of COVID-19 often lack access to affordable and healthy foods or live in neighborhoods where it's not safe to play or exercise outside.

"Let's take a patient with diabetes for example. They are already at high risk for COVID-19 by having a chronic condition," says Joseph Valenti, a physician in Denton, Texas, who promotes awareness of the social determinants of health through his work with the Physicians Foundation.

"If they also live in a food desert, they have to put themselves in greater risk if they want access to healthy food. They may need to take a bus, with people that have COVID-19 but aren't showing symptoms, to get access to nutritious food or even their insulin prescription," he says.

Poor nutrition, and the obesity linked to it, is a leading cause of premature death around the globe. And, this pandemic brings into focus the vulnerability of the millions of people living with lifestyle-related, chronic disease.

"We're seeing the convergence of chronic disease with an infection," says UNC's Beck. And the data suggest that the combination of these two can lead to more serious illness. "We're seeing that obesity can have a great influence on infection," she says.

So, will this shine a spotlight on the need to address these issues? "Hopefully," Beck says. "I think paying attention to these chronic diseases like obesity is in everybody's best interest."

: 4/18/20

A previous version of this story incorrectly said 43% of black respondents in a Pew Center poll are "very concerned" that they will get COVID-19 and require hospitalization. It was 43% of Hispanic respondents who said that.

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Who's Hit Hardest By COVID-19? Why Obesity, Stress And Race All Matter - Wyoming Public Media

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Find the Best Stem Cell Clinics in Wyoming – Stem Cell …

Posted: December 6, 2019 at 8:47 am

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Welcome to Wyoming Stem Cell Therapy!Dr. Todd Beckstead is a surgeon in Casper, Wyoming and is affiliated with Wyoming Medical Center. He received his medical degree from the University of Utah School of Medicine and has been a practicing surgeon for 15 years. Dr. Todd specializes in Stem Cell and PRP Injection Therapy. The Mesenchymal stem cells are isolated from your own fatty tissue. These cells have the potential to become: Bone, Cartilage, Tendon, Muscle, Blood Vessels & Nerve Tissue cells and can replace lost or damaged tissue. This treatment can be used to help:

Shoulder PainKnee PainHip PainAnkle PainNeck and Back PainOsteoarthritis

We also offer out-of-town phone consultations!About Dr. BecksteadDr. Beckstead grew up in Wyoming and attended Glenrock High School. He received his training as a paramedic at Weber State University and worked as a paramedic for 8 years. He graduated from the University of Utah with a degree in Biochemistry. Dr. Beckstead attended medical school at the University of Utah and then completed his General Surgery Residency at the Phoenix Integrated Residency Program in 1999. During his General Surgery Residency, he received extra training in vascular surgery. Dr. Beckstead, along with his wife, daughter and two sons moved to Casper, Wyoming in 1999. He states that his goal has always been to return to Wyoming to practice surgery and to raise his children. Dr. Beckstead is board certified in General Surgery and has been practicing with our group since 1999.

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Find the Best Stem Cell Clinics in Wyoming - Stem Cell ...

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50 Top Women in STEM | The Best Schools

Posted: July 15, 2018 at 1:41 am

By James A. Barham

They say that success is the best revenge.

For every woman who has ever felt exasperated by the various speculations regarding the existence or non-existence of innate differences between the sexes with respect to mathematical ability, what better rebuttal could there be than a list like this one?

The very fact that these fifty women have achieved what they have shows the superficiality of the whole debate. It ought to be clear by now that the mature expression of sophisticated human capacities depends upon a complex interaction between biological endowment and cultural and educational opportunity (that is, nature and nurture).

And if someone were to object that these fifty women are not typical well, the men who could be accounted the peers of these women would constitute a tiny minority of their sex, as well! Very high achievement, by its very nature, is something out of the ordinary.

Even readers who may have no interest at all in the nature-nurture problem and its echo in our present culture wars ought to take notice of this list. Why is that?

Consider this. Practically everyone allows that the fields of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) hold the key to the economic future of our country. Moreover, today well over half of all college graduates are female. In fact, women have been increasing their numbers in other academic fields by leaps and bounds in recent years; in STEM fields, not so much.

Therefore, we submit that the entrance of women into STEM fields in greater numbers is of vital importance to our national interest.

Also note that in order to compile this list, we had no recourse at all to affirmative action. There was simply no need for it. If anyone finds our list empowering, we are happy for them, but that is not really the main point.

We simply looked for the best women in their respective fields women who have gotten where they are by simply plowing through whatever obstacles may have stood in their path. Women with a lot of innate talent, certainly, but who have also put in a great deal of extremely hard work.

In other words, what our list shows to todays young women and whoever else may be interested is that it can be done. If a young woman has a taste and a talent for math and science and a capacity to stick with it to accomplish her goals that is really all she needs. At the end of the day, everything else is sound and fury signifying very little. (If youre up of a fun little challenge to test your skills, check out our STEM Intelligence Quiz.)

In short, the highly accomplished women on this list provide the best sort of role models for mathematically and scientifically inclined younger women. They say it loud and clear, for all the world to hear:

Just get out of my way, and let me get on with the work!

Note: We have tried to balance our list which is alphabetical among the various STEM fields, and within the exact sciences, among the main disciplines, such as physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, and geology. To be selected for inclusion on this list, the woman had of course to be still living as of the date of publication, and also be born after 1937 (and thus be under the age of eighty). We reluctantly decided to institute an age requirement in order ensure a list with more younger scholars still engaged in active research. We hope to revisit the path-breaking achievements of older women scientists on another occasion.

Askins (ne Scott) was born in Belfast, Tennessee. After first working as a teacher and raising a family, she went back to school and took her bachelors and masters of science degrees from the University of Alabama in Huntsville. She was then employed as a physical chemist by NASAs Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville.

Askins is best known for inventing the autoradiograph, a method of greatly enhancing the density and contrast of photographic images by exposing the silver in the emulsion of a photographic negative to radiation, and then creating a second image by exposing a second emulsion to the radiation from the first one. Askinss process was initially applied with great success in astronomy, to images taken through light telescopes. Subsequently, it found wide application in medical technology, in the enhancement of X-ray images. In 1978, Askins was named Inventor of the Year by the Association for the Advancement of Inventions and Innovations the first woman to receive the honor.

Bertozzi was born in Boston, Massachusetts. She received her AB summa cum laude in chemistry from Harvard University. She received her PhD in chemistry in 1993 from University of CaliforniaBerkeley, where she worked with Mark Bednarsky on the synthesis of oligosaccharide analogs. She joined the Berkeley faculty in 1996. Today, she is Anne T. and Robert M. Bass Professor in the School of Humanities and Sciences at Stanford University, as well as Director of the Bertozzi Research Lab in the Department of Chemistry at Stanford. In addition, since 2000 she has been a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator.

Bertozzis research focuses on the role of glycans (polysaccharides) in cell surface receptors, especially the connection between cell-signaling disruption and diseases like cancer and arthritis. Her lab is perhaps best known for developing powerful new research tools for cell biology, notably so-called bioorthogonal chemical reporters, which are man-made chemical handles that can be altered by means of externally controlled but non-perturbing reactions within the living system basically a new way of designing macromolecules to order. Bertozzis new method has been essential, among other things, to the development of modern forms of fluorescent labeling of macromolecules for purposes of advanced imaging. Bertozzi has won numerous prizes and awards, and is involved in several start-ups and other commercial ventures connected to her pioneering work.

Blackburn was born in Hobart, Tasmania, in Australia. When she was sixteen, her family relocated to Melbourne, where she attended high school, and obtained her bachelors and masters of science degrees from the University of Melbourne. Next, she traveled to the United Kingdom, where she enrolled in Darwin College, Cambridge, obtaining her PhD in 1974 for work on bacteriophage viruses. After graduating, she taught at University of CaliforniaSan Francisco, where her ground-breaking work on telomeres was done. She is currently President of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California.

In 2009, Blackburn was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, along with Carol W. Greider (see below on this list) and Jack W. Szostak, for her discovery of telomerase, a member of the reverse transcriptase family of enzymes. Telomeres are non-coding buffer regions at the ends of chromosomes which become shortened during chromosome replication. Telomerase controls the bonding of new nucleotide units to the shortened telomere regions after completion of cell replication, a function that is vital to the longevity of the cell. in 2002, Blackburn was appointed to the Presidents Council on Bioethics by President George W. Bush. She supported the use of human embryonic stem cells in biomedical research, which put her at odds with the majority of the Council. In 2004, she was removed from her position on the Council by President Bush amid heated public controversy.

Blau was born in London, but earned her bachelors degree from the University of York in the United Kingdom. She obtained her MA and PhD degrees from Harvard University, where she worked under Fotis C. Kafatos. After a postdoc as University of CaliforniaSan Francisco, she joined Stanford University in 1978, where she received an endowed chair in the Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology in 1999. In 2002, she was appointed as the founding Director of the Baxter Laboratory for Stem Cell Biology at Stanford.

Blau is best known for her experiments with heterokaryons (fusions of differentiated cells from two different species), work which proved that even mature, differentiated cells retain the latent capacity for the expression of different cell types, and that mature cell type could in fact be reversed something that had previously been assumed to be impossible. Her work also showed that the maintenance of the differentiated cell state is the result of a continuing, active process which points to a new, more dynamic vision of all living processes. Blaus work is considered to be fundamental to the young but burgeoning fields of stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. Her work also has profound implications for our eventual understanding of the physiological basis of cancer.

Breazeal was born in Albuquerque, New Mexico. She received her bachelor of science degree in electrical and computer engineering from University of CaliforniaSanta Barbara in 1989, and her doctor of science degree in electrical engineering and computer science from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 2000. At MIT, Breazeal worked in the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory under Rodney A. Brooks, fabled pioneer of the actionist approach to robotics. For her doctoral dissertation, she developed Kismet (see video clip, below), a highly expressive humanoid robot capable of unscripted, emotionally intuitive, and hence lifelike interaction with human beings.

Following the breakthrough with Kismet, Breazeal helped develop a number of more sophisticated robots utilizing similar principles, including Cog, Leonardo, and Nexi. The general term now in use for these more-advanced descendants of Kismet is MDS (mobile, dexterous, social) robots. Several commercial spin-offs have been derived from her work, as well, including the personal trainer, Autom, the interactive robot companion, Huggable, and the enhanced video-conferencing system, MeBot. Breazeal is currently Director of the Personal Robots Group under the aegis of MITs famed Media Lab.

Buck was born in Seattle, Washington. She received her bachelor of science degree in psychology and microbiology from the University of Washington at Seattle in 1975, and her PhD in immunology from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas in 1980. At the latter institution, she worked under Ellen S. Vitetta, co-discoverer of the cytokine Interleukin-4, which plays an essential role in the formation of T cells. After a couple of years of postdoctoral research at Columbia University, Buck joined Richard Axels lab at Columbias Institute of Cancer Research.

Inspired by the pioneering work of Solomon H. Snyder during the 1970s on the opioid receptor in the brain (as well as the receptors for many other major neurotransmitters), Buck and Axel decided to try to map an entire sensory system at the molecular level. They chose the olfactory system in rats for its relative simplicity. Beginning in 1991, they began publishing work that eventually identified genes and gene families responsible for coding for more than 1,000 different neural receptors (sensors) in the olfactory receptor cells at the back of the nose at the base of the brain. For this ground-breaking work, Buck and Axel received the 2004 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. In 1991, Buck joined the Neurobiology Department of Harvard Medical School, where she soon became head of her own lab. There, she traced the molecular basis of olfaction still further, showing how information from the various receptor cells are integrated in the olfactory bulb before being passed on to higher-level structures in the brain for interpretation. Buck is currently a Full Member of the Basic Sciences Division at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle.

Burnell (ne Bell) was born in Lurgan, Northern Ireland, in the United Kingdom. She became interested in astronomy at an early age. She took her bachelors degree in physics in 1965 from the University of Glasgow, and received her PhD in 1969 from the University of Cambridge. While at Cambridge and still known as Jocelyn Bell she was enlisted by her doctoral adviser, Antony Hewish, to work with Martin Ryle and others on the construction and testing of a new radio telescope designed to study the then-recently discovered radio sources known as quasi-stellar objects, or quasars. In 1967, while poring over data from the new telescope, Bell discovered a never-before-observed type of signal being emitted with great regularity at the rate of about one and one-third pulses per second. She immediately showed the strange signal to her adviser, and the two worked closely together to try to understand what she had found.

Initially given the facetious name of LGM-1 (for little green men) by Bell and Hewish, their discovery was soon conjectured by Thomas Gold to be caused by a highly magnetized, rapidly rotating neutron star. This conjecture proved to be correct, and the phenomenon then became officially known as a pulsating star, or pulsar. In 1968, Bell married Martin Burnell and, after taking her degree the following year, at first worked only part-time. Eventually, the couple divorced and Burnell resumed a full-time academic career, initially as Professor of Physics at the Open University (1991 2001). After occupying a visiting professorship at Princeton University, she next served as Dean of Science at the University of Bath (2001 2004). During this time, she also served as President of the Royal Astronomical Society (2002 2004), and later as President of the Institute of Physics (2008 2010). She is currently Visiting Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Oxford. Though passed over for the Nobel Prize for Physics awarded to Hewish and Ryle in 1974, Burnell was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 2003 and was made a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire (DBE) in 2007, among many other honors too numerous to mention.

Burns was born in Torrington, Wyoming (a small town of less than 7,000 souls). She earned her bachelors degree from Florida International University in Miami, and a PhD in organic chemistry from Iowa State University. She then did post-doctoral work at the University of Montpellier, France. In 1983, she joined the French division of the American company, Dow Corning, as a researcher specializing in organosilicon chemistry (the chemistry of organometallic compounds containing carbon silicon bonds). While still working for the company as a research scientist, Burns invented several new types of heat-resistant synthetic rubber made from silicone (a polymer consisting of long silicon oxygen chains, as well as carbon atoms). She holds three patents for these inventions.

Burns soon made the transition at Dow Corning from the laboratory bench to the corporate suite. In 1997, she moved to Brussels, where she oversaw important aspects of the companys European operations. In 2000, she returned to the United States in order to assume the role of Executive Vice President of the company, and to serve on its board of directors. In 2003, she was named President and Chief Operating Officer of Dow Corning, and in 2004 she added CEO to her titles, serving in that capacity until her retirement in 2011. She was also Chairman of the company from 2006 until her retirement. Under Burnss leadership, Dow Corning began developing new uses for organosilicon compounds in cutting-edge areas like solar energy and biotechnology.

Caraiani was born in Bucharest, Romania. She earned her bachelors degree summa cum laude from Princeton University in 2007. At Princeton, she wrote her senior thesis on Galois representations under the supervision of Andrew Wiles, widely known for having completed a proof in 1995 of Fermats Last Theorem. Caraiani did her doctoral work at Harvard under the supervision of Wiless former student, Richard Taylor. Her doctoral dissertation concerned local-global compatibility in the Langlands correspondence. After graduating in 2012, she first taught briefly at the University of Chicago, before returning to Princeton University from 2013 to 2016. While at Princeton, she also served as a Veblen Research Instructor in Mathematics at the Institute for Advanced Study (IAS). Since 2016, Caraiani has been a Bonn Junior Fellow at the Hausdorff Center for Mathematics (HCM), a highly prestigious mathematics research institute located in Bonn, Germany. She has also been invited for shorter visits to the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute at University of CaliforniaBerkeley and the cole Normale Suprieure in Paris.

So far, Caraiani has worked primarily on problems at the interface of the Langlands correspondence with arithmetic algebraic geometry. (The local Langlands correspondences are a part of the overarching Langlands program, which explores conjectured deep connections among diverse areas of mathematics, such as number theory, algebra, and analysis.) Regarding the direction of her future research, Caraiani has said that she hopes to extend the results, in work done jointly with Peter Scholze, about torsion in the cohomology of compact unitary Shimura varieties to the non-compact case. In the spring of 2018, Caraiani is due to take up a position as a von Neumann Fellow at the IAS.

Charlesworth (ne Maltby) was born in the United Kingdom. She received her PhD in genetics in 1968 from Cambridge University. Married to the geneticist Brian Charlesworth in 1967, for many years she followed in the wake of his career, holding only temporary positions at a number of institutions, including Cambridge University, the University of Chicago, Liverpool University, the University of Sussex, and the University of North Carolina, before finally received a full-time appointment as Assistant Professor at the University of Chicago in 1988. In 1997, she moved to the University of Edinburgh, where she is currently a Professorial Research Fellow.

Charlesworth has made signal contributions to our understanding of population genetics and evolution, especially in relation to genetic recombination, sex chromosomes, and mating systems in both plants and animals. More particularly, her work on linkage disequilibrium in the genome region containing the self-incompatibility alleles of the plant Arabidopsis lyrata has been widely recognized as highly original and important. Charlesworth has published more than 300 research papers, which have been cited more than 10,000 times. In 2005, she was named a Fellow of the Royal Society.

Chowdhry was born in Mumbai (then Bombay), India. She received her bachelors degree from the Indian Institute of Science in Mumbai in 1968. In 1970, she received a masters degree in engineering from the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), in Pasadena, California. After working for two years with the Ford Motor Company, she returned to graduate school, taking her PhD in materials science from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1976. The following year, Chowdhry joined the DuPont company as a research scientist at the DuPont Experimental Facility in Wilmington, Delaware.

While still at the laboratory bench, Chowdhry worked primarily on developing new ceramic materials for the field of high-temperature superconductivity. This work generated over fifty research papers and twenty patents. In addition to her work on ceramics and superconductors, she has also worked in the areas of catalysis, proton conductors, microelectronics, and nanotechnology. In 2002, she was named DuPonts Vice President of Global, Central Research & Development. In 2006, she became Senior Vice President of the company, as well as Chief Science and Technology Officer, positions she continued to hold until her retirement in 2010. In 2003, Chowdhry was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Cummings was born in a small town in Tennessee. Cummings received her bachelors degree in mathematics from the United States Naval Academy in 1988. She received her masters degree in space systems engineering from the Naval Postgraduate School in 1994, and her PhD in Systems Engineering from the University of Virginia in 2004. From 1988 until 1999, Cummings was a naval officer and military pilot. In 1989, she was one of the first women to land a supersonic jet fighter a Boeing F/A-18 Hornet on the deck of an aircraft carrier.

Cummings began her academic career while still in the Navy, at Pennsylvania State University, afterwards also teaching at Virginia Tech. In 2010, MIT appointed her an Associate Professor in its Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, where she was Director of the Humans and Automation Lab in the Engineering Systems Division. She is currently Associate Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science at Duke University, where once again she is Director of the Humans and Autonomy Lab (the new incarnation of the lab she previously headed up at MIT). She also holds joint appointments with Dukes Institute of Brain Sciences and Electrical and Computer Engineering Department. Cummingss research extends across several fields, including human interaction with autonomous vehicle systems, modeling human interaction with complex systems, and decision support design for time-pressured, uncertain systems. In addition, she has a strong interest in the ethics of technology, including the impact of technology on society.

Curry took her bachelors degree in geography from Northern Illinois University in 1974, and her PhD in geophysical sciences from the University of Chicago in 1982. In 2017, under intense pressure and amid public controversy, she resigned her long-time position as Professor in the School of Atmospheric Sciences at Georgia Tech University, where she had served as Chair of the School from 2002 until 2013. Prior to coming to Georgia Tech, Curry had been Professor of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences at the University of Colorado-Boulder, and before that had taught at a number of other prestigious universities, including Penn State, Purdue, and the University of Wisconsin-Madison. She has published nearly 200 peer-reviewed papers, and is co-author or -editor of three important textbooks: with Vitaly I. Khvorostyanov, Thermodynamics, Kinetics, and Microphysics of Clouds (Cambridge University Press, 2014); with James R. Holton and John Pyle, Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences (Academic Press, 2003); and with Peter J. Webster, Thermodynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans (Academic Press, 1998). Curry has served on NASAs Advisory Council Earth Science Subcommittee, on the Climate Working Group of the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and on the National Academies Space Studies Board and Climate Research Group. In 2004, she was elected a Fellow of the American Geophysical Union, and in 2007, a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

In spite of these solid credentials and achievements and despite her entrenched position within the institutions of mainstream American academic climatology Curry came under vitriolic attack for publicly censuring what she perceives as the growing politicization of climate science, which she feels has resulted in claims that are not adequately supported scientifically, in the stifling of needed further research, and in intimidation, fear, and conformity throughout the discipline. It was this courageous public stance including an op-ed piece in the Wall Street Journal in 2014 and culminating in congressional testimony in 2015 and again in 2017 that eventually led to her resignation from her tenured position at Georgia Tech earlier this year.

Donald (ne Griffith) was born in London. She was educated at the Camden School for Girls and Girton College, University of Cambridge. She took her bachelors degree in theoretical physics from the latter institution, where she went on to take her PhD in 1977 for work on electron microscopy. After postdoctoral work at Cornell University in the US, where she switched the focus of her research from metals to polymers, she returned to Cambridge in 1981, and two years later became a member of the world-renowned Cavendish Laboratory there, forever associated with the name of Ernest Rutherford. Since 1998, she has been Professor of Experimental Physics at the University of Cambridge, where she is also Master of Churchill College.

Donald works within the Soft Matter and Biological Physics group at the Cavendish Laboratory. Over the years, she has moved from the study of nonliving polymer and colloidal systems to research on the soft-matter properties of living systems, especially protein aggregation. Of the many techniques at the disposal of the soft-matter physicist, she is particularly noted for her work using the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), a device which allows for the study of untreated or wet specimens, and hence is of particular value for studying the physics of biological systems (macromolecules, organelles, and cells). Donalds work has placed her at the forefront of efforts to develop and institutionalize the burgeoning new field of biological physics. In 1999, she was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS), and in 2010, she was appointed a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire (DBE).

Doudna was born in Washington, DC, but spent most of her childhood in Hilo, Hawaii. She earned her bachelors degree in chemistry in 1985 from Pomona College and her PhD in biological chemistry and molecular pharmacology in 1989 from Harvard Medical School. At Harvard, she worked on ribozymes under Jack W. Szostak. She did post-doctoral work on the same topic at the University of Colorado-Boulder under Thomas R. Cech, who had just won the 1989 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his co-discovery of the catalytic properties of RNA. After several years at Yale, Doudna moved to the University of California-Berkeley in 2002 in order to be near the synchrotron at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. She is currently Professor of Chemistry and of Molecular and Cell Biology in the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering at University of CaliforniaBerkeley. She has published nearly 200 research papers and is co-author of a popular molecular biology textbook. However, Doudna is undoubtedly best-known for her recent involvement in the development of a powerful new method of gene editing that in a few short years has already revolutionized genetic engineering, and whose future contributions to medicine therapy as well as basic research are incalculable.

The method is called CRISPR/Cas9. CRISPR stands for clustered, regularly spaced, short palindromic repeats, and is basically a region of the bacterial chromosome that acts as a spacer between different coding regions, or genes. Cas9 is an enzyme produced by certain bacteria that acts like scissors, cutting a chromosome at the CRISPR region. The discovery of this pair of structures and how they operate together has made it possible for the first time for scientists to contemplate editing genes virtually at will. Teaming up with Emmanuelle Charpentier, now of Ume University in Sweden, Doudna published a seminal paper on the CRISP/Cas9 technique in 2012. Since then, however, other labs have claimed to have made similar discoveries independently, and there has been a considerable amount of legal wrangling over priority, the outcome of which has many important implications not just for the Nobel Prize and other forms of recognition but potentially for biotech ventures that may someday be worth billions of dollars.

As the daughter of physicist Sidney Drell, Persis Drell grew up on the campus of Stanford University, where today she is Provost. She earned her bachelors degree in mathematics and physics in 1977 from Wellesley College, and her PhD in atomic physics in 1983 from University of CaliforniaBerkeley. She did post-doctoral work at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and in 1988, she took a position as Assistant Professor at Cornell, where she was appointed a full Professor 1998. In 2002, she moved to Stanford University as Professor and Associate Director of Research at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). In 2007, she was named Director of SLAC, a position she held until 2012.

During her tenure as Director, Drell oversaw the so-called BaBar experiment conducted at SLAC by an international consortium of over 500 scientists, which was designed to study the relationship between matter and anti-matter by investigating the phenomenon of charge parity violation. The name of this important experiment (inspired by Babar the Elephant) comes from the symbols B and B (B-bar), standing for the B meson and its antiparticle, respectively. In 2014, Drell was named Dean of Stanfords School of Engineering, with joint appoints as James and Anna Marie Spilker Professor, Professor of Materials Science and Engineering, and Professor of Physics. In 2017, she became Provost of Stanford University.

Faber was born in Boston, Massachusetts. She took her bachelors degree from Swarthmore College in 1966, with a major in physics and minors in mathematics and astronomy. She received her PhD from Harvard University in 1972, with a dissertation on optical observational astronomy. In 1972, she became the first woman to join the staff of the Lick Observatory at University of CaliforniaSanta Cruz. In 1976, working with one of her graduate students, Robert Jackson, Faber observed a correlation now known as the Faber-Jackson relation between the brightness and spectra of galaxies and the orbital speeds and motions of the stars within them. In the early 1980s, now collaborating with Martin Reese and others, she published an influential series of articles on cold dark matter, proving that dark matter could not be composed of fast-moving neutrinos, and thus that the hot dark matter hypothesis must be wrong.

Next, Faber became closely involved with the development of the two Keck telescopes atop Mauna Kea, the tallest volcano on earth, on the Big Island of Hawaii. Then as now, the Kecks are the worlds most powerful optical instruments. Their highly innovative design includes a ten-meter primary mirror consisting of thirty-six hexagonal segments. Faber was crucial in selling the concept behind the original Keck instrument to governments and private funding agencies around the world, changing forever the face of optical astronomy. She remained closely involved with the development of the second-generation Keck II telescope, as well as with plans for the wide-field planetary camera for the Hubble Space Telescope. When a flaw was discovered in the Hubbles main optical system, Faber was charged with putting together a team, which diagnosed the cause as spherical aberration, thus permitting a technical fix to salvage the mission. The Hubble went on to a long and fruitful career producing many outstanding images of the far reaches of the universe. Faber is currently University Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics at University of CaliforniaSanta Cruz.

Freedman was born in Toronto, where she received her bachelors degree in astronomy from the University of Toronto in 1979. She remained there for her graduate work, as well, taking her PhD in astronomy and astrophysics from the same university in 1984. Upon graduation, she joined the staff of the Carnegie Observatories, which operate the telescopes at Las Campanas, high in the Andes mountains of northern Chile, but whose headquarters are in Pasadena, California. She worked there first as a post-doc, then three years later as a regular faculty member, becoming the first woman on the permanent staff. While at the Carnegie, where in 2003 she became the Crawford H. Greenewalt Chair and Director of Observatories, Freedman worked on refining estimates of the size and age of the universe based on improved observations of Cepheid variable stars. The known relation between the periodicity of the rotation and the brightness of these stars has long been one of the main tools astronomers use to calculate intergalactic distances.

After the Hubble Space Telescope became operational in the mid-1990s, Freedman was selected to be co-leader of the Intergalactic Distance Scale project, an international team tasked with using the Hubbles greatly increased observational power to refine the value of the Hubble constant, a key value upon which depends the rate of the cosmic expansion, and thus our knowledge of the size and age of the universe. For the past fifteen years or so, Freedman has been involved with another international team planning and building the next generation of earth-based, optical telescopes, the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). With seven segments collectively equivalent to an 80-ft. primary mirror, the GMT is being built at the Las Campanas site in the Andes under the auspices of the Carnegie Observatories. When fully operational around 2025, the GMT will be the worlds largest optical instrument, with a resolving power an order of magnitude greater than the Hubbles. In 2014, Freedman moved to the University of Chicago, where she the John & Marion Sullivan University Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics.

Freese was born in Freiburg, Germany (West Germany, at the time). Brought to the US at the age of nine, she received her bachelors degree in physics in 1977 from Princeton University (the second woman there to major in the subject), her masters degree in physics in 1981 from Columbia, and her PhD in physics in 1984 from the University of Chicago, where David Schramm directed her dissertation. After post-docs at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, at the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics at University of CaliforniaSanta Barbara, and at University of CaliforniaBerkeley, she was hired as an Assistant Professor at MIT, where she taught from 1987 until 1991. Subsequently, she moved to the University of Michigan, where she is currently George E. Uhlenbeck Professor of Physics.

Freeses main area of research has been on the dark matter/dark energy problem. In particular, she has made several proposals for ways to detect dark matter experimentally, which have led directly to the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the AmundsenScott South Pole Station in Antarctica, and a worldwide consortium of efforts to detect a dark matter wind as the Earth and the solar system orbit the Milky Way galaxy. Her work has definitely ruled out the MACHO (massive compact halo object) theory of dark matter, thus giving support to WIMPs (weakly interacting massive particles). In more recent theoretical work, Freese has advanced several conjectures regarding dark matter, including a model known as the Cardassian expansion which replaces dark matter with a modification of Einsteins field equations, and another hypothesis known as dark stars, which if confirmed would be a new type of star powered by dark matter annihilation rather than fusion. Finally, Freese has also worked on improving the inflationary version of the Big Bang model of the origin of the universe. Her proposal, known as natural inflation, is a theoretically well-motivated idea that uses axion-like particles to provide the required flat potentials to drive the cosmic expansion. In 2013, the European Space Agencys Planck Satellite observed data which are consistent with Freeses natural inflation model.

Geller was born in Ithaca, New York. She received her bachelors degree in physics in 1970 from University of CaliforniaBerkeley, and her PhD in physics in 1975 from Princeton, where she worked with P.J.E. Peebles. After post-docs at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and the Institute for Astronomy at the University of Cambridge, she returned to Harvard, where she served as an Assistant Professor of Astronomy from 1980 until 1983. She then moved to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (a partner in the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), where she has worked ever since as a member of the permanent scientific staff. Geller is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, of the American Physical Society, and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, as well as a member of the physics section of the US National Academy of Sciences. She has also received numerous prizes and lectureships, including the Newcomb Cleveland Prize (AAAS) in 1989, a MacArthur Foundation Fellowship in 1990, the Henry Norris Russell Lectureship (American Astronomical Society) in 2010, the Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize (American Physical Society) in 2013, and the Karl Schwarzschild Medal (German Astronomical Society) in 2014.

In order to help promote public interest in astronomy and physics, Geller lectures frequently all around the world, and has made a number of educational short films and videos. Her particular field of expertise is the large-scale structure of the universe, and her best-known scientific achievement is the creation of pioneering maps of galaxy clusters and other super-galactic structures. One such effort, the Second Center for Astrophysics Redshift Survey (CfA2) conducted in 1989 by a team of American astronomers headed up by Geller and John Huchra, led to the discovery of the Great Wall, an enormous filament of galaxies that is one of the largest known material objects in the universe.

Gianotti was born in Rome. She received her PhD in experimental particle physics in 1989 from the University of Milan. After graduation, she occupied a number of post-doc positions. In 1994, she was appointed a research physicist in the Physics Department of the Conseil Europen pour la Recherche Nuclaire (CERN) near Geneva now known officially as the European Organization for Nuclear Research (but retaining the original acronym) and site of the Large Hadron Collider, currently the worlds largest particle accelerator. Gianotti has worked at CERN ever since. She has served on the scientific advisory boards or councils of numerous international organizations, including the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) in France, Fermilab in the US, the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) in Germany, and the European Physical Society.

Gianotti is a corresponding member of the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei the most prestigious scientific society in her native Italy, which traces its roots back to the time of Galileo as well as a foreign associate member of the US National Academy of Sciences and the French Academy of Science. Moreover, in 2013, she won the Italian Physical Societys prestigious Enrico Fermi Prize. Gianotti has been involved with many important experiments at CERN over the years, but she is no doubt best known for her work as project leader of one of the two teams at CERN which undertook the search for the Higgs boson, beginning in 2009. The team she led in preparing, running, and analyzing the experiment on the Large Hadron Collider comprised some 3000 physicists from thirty-eight different countries. In July of 2012, it fell to Gianotti to make the announcement to the world that the Higgs boson had indeed been detected. In 2016, she began a five-year term as Director-General of CERN.

Greider was born in San Diego, California, and raised mostly in Davis (where her father was a physics professor). She took her bachelors degree in biology in 1983 from University of CaliforniaSanta Barbara. During this period, she spent time at the University of Gttingen in Germany, where as an undergraduate she already made important discoveries. Greider obtained her PhD in molecular biology in 1987 from University of CaliforniaBerkeley, where she worked under Elizabeth Blackburn (see above on this list). When she joined Blackburns laboratory for her doctoral work in April of 1984, Greider focused on the search for the enzyme believed to be implicated in adding new nucleotide bases to the ends of chromosomes to replace ones lost during DNA replication. Working with the fresh-water protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila as a model organism, Greider obtained the first results indicating that the enzyme now known as telomerase might be the molecule they were seeking on Christmas Day of 1984.

After six months of additional experimenting for the sake of verification, Greider and Blackburn published their ground-breaking paper on telomere terminal transferase (as they originally styled the molecule) in December of 1985. Many years later in 2009, the grad student and her adviser shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (along with Jack W. Szostak, who had been working along similar lines independently). After completing her dissertation, Greider worked at the world-renowned Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory on Long Island. During her time at CSHL, she worked extensively on the connection between telomeres and longevity in multicelluar aninmals, using so-called telomerase knockout mice (mice genetically altered not to produce telomerase) as her model organism. She also became involved in efforts to develop new technologies based on her discoveries, notably by joining the Scientific Advisory Board of Geron Corporation. Since 2014, Greider has been Bloomberg Distinguished Professor and Daniel Nathans Professor and Director of Molecular Biology and Genetics at Johns Hopkins University, as well as heading up the Greider Lab there.

Hau was born in the small city of Velje in Denmark. She received her bachelors, masters, and PhD degrees in physics all from the University of Aarhus. While working on her dissertation (on using silicon crystals as electrical conductors), she did research for seven months at CERN near Geneva. After graduating in 1991, she joined the Rowlands Institute for Science in Cambridge, Massachusetts, as a scientific staff member. Both at the Rowlands and after moving to Harvard in 1999 on a two-year fellowship (at the end of which she was awarded tenure), Hau began working on a pair of exotic phenomena: Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC), which occur in certain materials at ultra-low temperatures (~2 K), giving rise to unusual properties such as superfluidity; and slow light, in which the group velocity of photons interacting with a medium may be reduced far below the familiar value c the speed of light in a vacuum. Haus original application to the National Science Foundation (NSF) to fund her work on BEC was rejected on the grounds that her background was in theoretical physics and she did not have the experience to do such difficult experimental work.

Nothing daunted, she plunged ahead, gained alternative funding, and became one of the first researchers in the world to create a so-called pure BEC from a highly dilute gas (as opposed to helium-4, which is a liquid). However, she is best known for her pathbreaking work on slow light. In 1999, she and her team at Harvard used a BEC to slow a beam of light down to seventeen meters per second. Two years later, they succeeded in stopping light in its tracks. In her more recent work, Hau has been exploring novel interactions between ultracold atoms, slow light, and nanoscale systems. Her new work is thought to have great potential to revolutionize a number of different fields, from energy (photovoltaic cells, synthetic biofuels) to advanced forms of astronomical instrumentation to quantum computing. Hau is currently the Mallinckrodt Professor of Physics and of Applied Physics at Harvard University.

Jablonka (ne Tavori) was born in Poland. With her family, she emigrated to Israel in 1957. She received her bachelors degree in biology in 1976 and her masters degree in microbiology in 1980, both from Ben-Gurion University. Her masters thesis won Israels Landau Prize for outstanding masters of science work. In 1988, she earned her PhD in Genetics from the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, where she worked under the supervision of Howard Cedar. Her dissertation won her nations Marcus Prize for outstanding PhD work. While a PhD student, Jablonka served as an Assistant Professor at Ben-Gurion University, teaching courses on genetics, microbiology, and biochemistry. Both before and after obtaining her PhD, she had a series of research assistantships and teaching fellowships, notably at the Van Leer Institute in Jerusalem, the Medical Research Councils Mammalian Development Unit in London, and the Edelstein Center for the History and Philosophy of Science, Technology, and Medicine at the Hebrew University.

After teaching for several years in the Biology Department at Tel Aviv University, Jablonka moved to the Cohn Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science and Ideas there, where she is currently a Professor and lectures mainly on the history and philosophical foundations of biology. In the years since, she has had numerous visiting professorships, including at Bielefeld University in Germany and University of CaliforniaBerkeley in the US. Jablonka is mainly known for her pathbreaking work on the integration of epigenetics (AKA Lamarckian inheritance) and evolutionary theory. She is a major contributor to what has come to be called the the extended evolutionary synthesis (EES). The author or co-author of more than fifty peer-reviewed papers, Jablonka has co-authored three influential textbooks: (with Marion J. Lamb) Epigenetic Inheritance and Evolution: The Lamarckian Dimension (Oxford University Press, 1995); (also with Lamb) Evolution in Four Dimensions: Genetic, Epigenetic, Behavioral, and Symbolic Variation in the History of Life, 2nd ed. (MIT Press, 2005); and (with Eytan Avital) Animal Traditions: Behavioural Inheritance in Evolution (Cambridge University Press, 2000).

Al-Kharafi was born in Kuwait. She received her bachelors of science degree in 1967 from Ain Shams University in Cairo. She then received her masters degree in 1972 and her PhD in 1975, both from Kuwait University. While still in graduate school, she helped organize the new Corrosion and Electrochemistry Research Laboratory at Kuwait University. After graduating, she taught in the same universitys Department of Chemistry from 1975 until 1981, where she became department Chair in 1984 and a full Professor of Chemistry in 1987. From 1986 until 1989, she served as Dean of the Faculty of Science. In 1993, she was appointed Rector (an office later known as President) of Kuwait University, to help reconstruct the university in the aftermath of the trauma of the First Gulf War (19901991). The first woman to lead a major university in the Middle East, al-Kharafi remained in the post of President until 2002.

In her scientific work, al-Kharafi was primarily engaged in the study of corrosion in various technological systems, including engine cooling systems, distillation units for crude oil, and high temperature geothermal brines. She also worked on the electrochemical behavior of a wide variety of metals and metal alloys, from aluminum to vanadium to cadmium to low-carbon steel. Moreover, she collaborated in the discovery of a new class of molybdenum-based catalysts, which can be used to enhance the octane rating of gasoline without the use of undesirable benzene by-products. Al-Kharafi currently serves as a member of several boards of directors, including those of the Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Science and of the Kuwait-MIT Center for Natural Resources and the Environment. In addition, she is Vice-President of the World Academy of Sciences.

King was born in Evanston, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. She received her bachelors degree in mathematics in 1966 from Carlteon College, and her PhD in genetics in 1973 from University of CaliforniaBerkeley, where she worked under Allan Wilson. Kings dissertation consisted of a comparative protein analysis of humans and chimpanzees, on the basis of which she was the first researcher to determine that the two species share the vast majority of their genes in common. (Her original figure of 99% has been revised downward only slightly over the years to around 97%.) After a post-doc at University of CaliforniaSan Francisco, King joined the University of CaliforniaBerkeley faculty as a professor of genetics and epidemiology, a position she held from 1976 until 1995, when she moved to the University of Washington. In 1990, while still at Berkeley, she discovered that a single gene on chromosome seventeen (later called BRCA-1) plays an important role in many types of breast cancer.

Not only did Kings discovery lead to genetic tests that have enabled women with a family history of breast cancer to obtain more complete information about their own prospects for coming down with the disease, the techniques she developed in the isolation of BRCA-1 have also proven extremely useful to countless other researchers working on a host of other genetic illnesses. In the intervening years, King has branched out considerably, working on the genetics of other conditions, such as deafness, but also on projects such as using genetics to help identify the remains of those killed in civil conflicts in Argentina, El Salvador, and elsewhere, as well as to reconstruct prehistoric human migration patterns. A member of the National Academy of Sciences since 2005, and recipient of the Gruber Foundation Genetics Prize (2004), the Lasker Award (2014), and honorary doctorates too numerous to mention, King is currently the American Cancer Society Research Professor at the University of Washington.

Klein was born in Wilmington, Delaware. She obtained her bachelors degree in metallurgy in 1973 and her PhD in ceramics in 1977, both from the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at MIT. Upon graduating in 1977, she joined the School of Engineering at Rutgers University, receiving tenure there in 1981 (the first woman to do so). She has been a visiting scientist at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque, New Mexico, at the University of Grenoble in France, and at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Israel. Kleins field of scientific expertise lies in the sol-gel process, a method for producing solid materials such as glasses, ceramics, and organic-inorganic hybrid compounds from small molecules. Sol-gel processing methods refined by her have been applied to the development of a host of new devices, including ceramic membranes, solid electrolytes, fuel cell components, and planar waveguides.

Kleins best-known scientific contribution is probably her work on electrochromic window coatings. These are ceramic coatings that can be lightened or darkened through the use of a manually controlled dimmer attached to a battery. Reflecting away heat while still transmitting light in summer, as well as permitting solar heating in winter, such coatings are more versatile and efficient than traditional blinds and tintings, thus saving on heating and cooling costs. Klein is currently Distinguished Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at Rutgers University, as well as Graduate Director of the university, President of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) there, and co-editor of the Journal of the American Ceramics Society.

Klinman was born in Philadelphia. She took her bachelors degree in 1962 and her PhD in 1966, both from the University of Pennsylvania. She did post-doctoral research at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel, where she worked with David H. Samuel, and at the Institute for Cancer Research in Philadelphia, where she worked with Irwin Rose. Klinman stayed on as a permanent scientific staff member of the Institute for Cancer Research, where she worked for many years, before moving to University of CaliforniaBerkeley in 1978. Klinmans scientific career has been devoted to the study of enzyme catalysis. In her early work, she developed kinetic isotope effects for use as an experimental probe for studying the extremely rapid individual steps involved in enzyme action. In 1990, while working with a particular copper-containing amine oxidase present in bovine blood plasma, her team discovered the presence of the topaquinone (TPQ) molecule at the enzymes active site, thus demonstrating the existence of a new class of enzymes (quinoenzymes) that require protein-derived cofactors for proper functioning.

Klinmans pathbreaking work on quinoenzymes has opened up a whole new field of study with significant theoretical and therapeutic implications. Her most recent work focuses on the role of quantum mechanical tunneling in enzyme-catalyzed hydrogen activation reactions a phenomenon she studies with new technological probes also developed by her team. In 2012, Klinman was awarded the National Medal of Science, while in 2015, she received the Mildred Cohn Award in Biological Chemistry from the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Klinman is currently Professor of the Graduate School and Chancellors Professor at University of CaliforniaBerkeley, where she leads the Klinman Lab in the College of Chemistry.

Liskov (ne Huberman) was born in Los Angeles, California, but grew up in the San Francisco area. She earned her bachelors degree in mathematics (with a minor in physics) in 1961 from University of CaliforniaBerkeley. She applied to the Mathematics Department at Princeton University for graduate school, but they were still not accepting female graduate students at the time. She was accepted by Berkeley, but Liskov chose instead to go to work for the Mitre Corporation, a not-for-profit, research-and-development government contractor based in the Boston area. It was at Mitre that Liskov became interested in the still-infant field of computer programming. After a year, she moved to Harvard, where she worked on the problem of automated natural language translation. After a time, she decided to go back to school, and earned her PhD in computer science from Stanford University in 1968 one of the first women anywhere to earn a doctorate in that field. At Stanford, Liskov worked closely with the artificial intelligence (AI) pioneer, John McCarthy; her dissertation was titled A Program to Play Chess Endgames. Upon graduation, she returned to Mitre, where she worked for many years as a member of their permanent research staff.

Among Liskovs many achievements in the fields of computer science and engineering are the following: the Venus operating systems (a low-cost, interactive time-sharing system); implementation of the CLU programming language and its extension, Argus (the first high-level language to support distributed programs, employing the technique of promise pipelining); and Thor (an object-oriented database system). She is also known for the eponymous Liskov Substitution Principle, an important logical/mathematical procedure in the implementation of any object-oriented programming system. In 2004, Liskov received the John von Neumann Medal bestowed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), while in 2008 she won the Alan M. Turing Award bestowed by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) two of the highest honors in her field. Liskov is currently Institute Professor at MIT, as well as Ford Professor of Engineering in MITs Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department in the School of Engineering.

Luu (ne Luu Le Hang) was born in Saigon, in what is now the Socialist Republic of Vietnam but was at the time the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam). In April of 1975, the 11-year-old Luu fled South Vietnam with her family. After some time first in a refugee camp, then with relatives living in Paducah, Kentucky, the family finally settled in Ventura, California, where Luu attended high school. She obtained a bachelors degree in physics in 1984 from Stanford University. After some time at University of CaliforniaBerkeley, she moved to MIT, where she received her PhD in the Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Science in 1990. After several post-docs, Luu taught at Harvard and at Leiden University in the Netherlands, before returning to MIT, where she is currently a technical staff member in the Active Optical Systems Group at Lincoln Laboratory.

While a graduate student at MIT, Luu had worked closely with David C. Jewitt. When Jewitt moved to the University of Hawaii in 1988, Luu went along in order to continue working with him, while remaining an MIT student. Upon graduation in 1990, Luu took up a Postdoctoral Fellowship at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, which enabled her to continue to travel to Hawaii in order to make use of the 2.2-meter telescope atop Mauna Kea. It was there in 1992 that she and Jewitt made the discovery for which each remains best known: the Kuiper Belt, a vast disc of small, icy bodies orbiting the sun beyond Neptune. It was this discovery that eventually led to Plutos being demoted from the status of a planet to that of a Kuiper Belt object. Luu has continued to work on characterizing a great many new Kuiper Belt objects over the intervening years. In recognition of her revolutionary discoveries regarding the outer reaches of our solar system, in 2012 Luu was awarded two of the most prestigious prizes in her field: the Shaw Prize and the Kavli Prize in Astrophysics.

Mayer was born in Wausau, Wisconsin. She took her bachelors degree in symbolic systems in 1997 and her masters degree in computer science in 1999, both from Stanford University. For both degrees, she specialized in artificial intelligence (AI), including developing a travel advice software system with a natural language user interface. Upon graduation, Mayer interned at SRI International in Menlo Park, California, and at UBS Financials research lab based in Zurich, Switzerland. Next, she turned down an offer to teach at Carnegie Mellon University in order to join the then-new Google company as employee number twenty. Mayer was the companys first female engineer. She started out writing code, as well as supervising small teams tasked with the design and development of Googles search offerings. Mayer holds several patents in artificial intelligence and interface design. Moving quickly into management, Mayer placed her own personal stamp on the company, especially as the person mainly responsible for the elegant, minimalist look of Googles home page, with a single search bar centered on the page surrounded by white space. From there, she went on to oversee the launch and development of many of Googles iconic products, overseeing the development of a host of new AI-based initiatives, including Google AdWords, Google Search, Google Images, Google Maps, Google Product Search, Google Toolbar, iGoogle, and Gmail, among others.

In 2005, Mayer was named Vice President of Search Products and User Experience at Goggle. In 2011, she spearheaded Googles $125 million acquisition of the survey site, Zagat, to bolster Google Maps. During her years at Google, Mayer also frequently functioned as one of the companys most prominent spokespersons. In 2012, she was appointed President and CEO of Yahoo! However, as a result of an ultimately unsuccessful $1+ billion acquisition of Tumblr undertaken to buoy the companys sagging fortunes, as well as other controversial cost-saving and performance-enhancing measures, she became unpopular with the companys rank-and-file. Mayer resigned from Yahoo! in June of 2017, in conjunction with the companys sale to Verizon Communications. Mayer, who currently resides in San Francisco, has a net worth estimated to be around $540 million.

Miller was home-schooled in the small town of Niskayuna, near Schenectady in upstate New York. She competed on the US team at the 45th International Mathematical Olympiad in 2004 in Athens, Greece, where she won a gold medal a first ever for an American woman. She received her bachelors degree summa cum laude in mathematics in 2008 from Harvard University, where while still a undergraduate she published two papers on modular forms in number theory, and a third paper giving the best known upper bounds on superpatterns in the theory of permutation patterns. While at Harvard, she also won the Elizabeth Lowell Putnam Prize for three years running (2005 2007), equaling a record previously set by Ioana Dumitriu. Her senior thesis, Explicit Class Field Theory in Function Fields: Gross-Stark Units and Drinfeld Modules, won the Hoopes Prize. Following her bachelors degree, Miller attended Cambridge University in England for a year on a Churchill Scholarship.

Miller earned her PhD in 2014 from Princeton University, where she worked under the supervision of Fields Medalist, Manjul Bhargava. Her dissertation was titled, Counting Simple Knots via Arithmetic Invariants. Knot theory is a sub-discipline of topology with potentially important applications in quantum field theory, condensed-matter theory, and other areas of theoretical physics. After receiving her PhD, Miller returned to Harvard where she is currently a Benjamin Peirce and NSF Postdoctoral Fellow. She continues to work on algebraic number theory, arithmetic invariant theory, and their connections with classical knot invariants.

Morel was born in Issy-les-Moulineaux, a southeastern suburb of Paris. She completed her undergraduate work at the cole Normale Suprieure, and earned her PhD in 2005 at the Universit de Paris-Sud XI under the direction of Grard Laumon. Her dissertation, titled Complexes dintersection des compactifications de Baily-Borel le cas des groupes unitaires sur Q [Intersection Complexes of Baily-Borel Compactifications The Case of Unitary Groups Over Q], relates to a problem in the Langlands Program, an ambitious group of conjectures which seeks to unite various fields of mathematics such as algebraic number theory, algebraic geometry, and representation theory (a generalization of group theory) into a sort of Grand Unified Theory of mathematics.

After completing her PhD, Morel spent three years (from 2006 until 2009) at the Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) in Princeton, New Jersey, in the US. In 2009, she accepted a teaching position at Harvard University. In 2012, Morel moved to Princeton University, where she is currently a Professor of Mathematics. Since moving to Princeton, she has also been the beneficiary of two years additional affiliation with the IAS (2010 2011; 2012 2013). Moreover, between 2006 and 2011, Morel was a Clay Research Fellow under the auspices of the Clay Mathematics Institute (CMI) in Peterborough, New Hampshire. Morel continues to do research and publish on the Langlands Program.

Moser was born in Fosnavg, a small town on one of the westernmost islands off the coast of Norway. She attended the University of Oslo, where she began to study the link between brain and behavior in the laboratory of Terje Sagvolden. It was also at this time that she met her future husband and close scientific collaborator, Edvard I. Moser (the couple married in 1985). She received her undergraduate degree in general sciences with a special emphasis on neurobiology in 1983. For her masters degree, she worked in the laboratory of Per Andersen, graduating in psychology and neurobiology in 1990. For her PhD, Moser continued working in the Andersen lab, where she now focused on the the role of the hippocampus and associated neural structures in learning. During this time, she also did a stint in the lab of Richard G. Morris at the University of Edinburgh. It was Morris who had originally conceived of the water maze a specialized device for studying the process of learning in rats which Moser adapted for her own work.

Moser received her doctorate in neurophysiology in 1995, after which she occupied a short post-doctoral visiting fellowship at University College London to study with the renowned neuroscientist, John OKeefe. In 1996, she was appointed Associate Professor of Biological Psychology at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) in Trondheim, where she advanced to the rank of full Professor in 2000. In 2002, the group she spearheaded at NTNU became known as the Centre for the Biology of Memory. Moser also helped establish the Institute for Systems Neuroscience at NTNU in 2007. She is currently Head of Department at NTNUs Centre for Neural Computation. In 2005, Moser and her team discovered what are now known as grid cells in the entorhinal cortex, a structure within the medial temporal lobe connecting the neocortex to the hippocampus. Basically, they demonstrated that when a rat learns to navigate a maze, an isomorphic pattern of neural circuitry is established in this structure. For this pathbreaking work, Moser shared in the 2014 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine (along with her husband and John OKeefe).

Nsslein-Volhard (ne Volhard) was born near Magdeburg, Germany. She studied general science at the Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-Universitt in Frankfurt, before moving to Eberhard-Karls-Universitt in Tbingen, where she received her undergraduate degree in biochemistry in 1968. For her graduate work, she remained in Tbingen; however, she now began attending the lectures of Gerhard Schramm, Heinz Schaller, and other eminent scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Virus Research (later rechristened the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology). She obtained her PhD in genetics there in 1973 under the supervision of Schaller. For her dissertation, she studied the binding of RNA polymerase to the DNA molecule in Escherichia coli. Techniques she developed at this time for purifying RNA polymerase opened up new avenues for genetics research extending in many different directions.

After graduating, Nsslein-Volhard received a post-doc to work with world-renowned developmental biologist Walter Gehring at the University of Basel in Switzerland. It was in Gehrings laboratory that she undertook the painstaking work of genetic screening of mutations involving the bicaudal gene in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) on which her reputation is based. Her landmark 1977 paper, Genetic analysis of pattern-formation in the embryo of Drosophila melanogaster. turned the field of developmental biology on its ear. Scientists were now able to intervene in the development of the vertebrate embryo in a controlled way, allowing them for the first time to study the mechanistic details of embryonic development. In 1978, Nsslein-Volhard accepted a position at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Heidelberg, where she continued her groundbreaking work on Drosophila embryos, making many additional advances. In 1981, she moved to the Friedrich Miescher Laboratory, back in Tbingen, before being appointed in 1986 Director of the newly renamed Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, where she remains until today as an emerita researcher. In 1995, Nsslein-Volhard shared in the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine (with Edward B. Lewis and Eric Wieschaus) for her work on the genetic control of early embryonic development.

Perlman was born in Portsmouth, Virginia, and grew up near Asbury Park, New Jersey. She entered MIT to study mathematics for her bachelors degree, but ended up debugging programs for the LOGO group within the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (as it was then known) to earn some money. LOGO was an early educational robotics language. It was while working for this group under the supervision of Seymour Papert that Perlman was inspired to design a child-friendly version of LOGO called TORTIS (Toddlers Own Recursive Turtle Interpreter System), which was an interactive robot with a special keyboard that preschoolers could use to learn the basics of programming. Historians have acclaimed TORTIS as a pioneering example of tangible computing, as the field has come to be known. Perlman has stated that she failed to follow up on TORTIS for fear that the involvement of small children might prevent her from being taken seriously as a scientist. After earning her bachelors and masters degrees in mathematics from MIT, she obtained her PhD in computer science in 1988 from the same institution.

After graduating, she went to work for Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), where she made most of the conceptual innovations for which she is famous. These include protocols she designed in the 1980s (IS-IS), which continue to be used for routing Internet Protocol (IP) to this day. She is perhaps best known for inventing the Spanning Tree Algorithm, which transformed Ethernet from its originally limited scalability into a protocol capable of handling large clouds. She later improved on this work by designing TRILL (TRansparent Interconnection of Lots of Links), which allows Ethernet to make optimal use of bandwidth. On account of these and other fundamental contributions to digital network infrastructure, she is often referred to as the Mother of the Internet a sobriquet she modestly rejects. Perlman has written two influential college textbooks her 1992 classic, Interconnections: Bridges, Routers, Switches, and Internetworking Protocols, brought simplifying clarity to a confused field and holds over one hundred patents. She is currently employed by Dell EMC.

Porco was born in the Bronx, in New York City. She earned her bachelors degree in 1974 from State University of New York (SUNY) at Stony Brook. She received her PhD in 1983 in the Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences from California Institute of Technology (CalTech), in Pasadena, California, where she wrote her dissertation on the discoveries made by NASAs unmanned spacecraft, Voyagers 1 and 2, while exploring the rings of Saturn. Immediately upon graduation, Porco joined the University of Arizonas Department of Planetary Sciences, and was appointed a member of the Voyager Imaging Team. In 1986, she was an active member of the team managing Voyager 2s encounter with Uranus, and in 1989, she headed up the Rings Working Group within the Imaging Team participating in Voyager 2s encounter with Neptune. Among the many Voyager-based discoveries attributable to Porco and her team are eccentric spokes among the rings of Saturn, the Uranian moons Cordelia and Ophelia, which shepherd Uranuss rings, and the Neptunian moon Galatea, which performs a similar function for Neptunes ring arcs.

In 1990, Porco was named leader of the Imaging Team for the Cassini space probe, which was inserted into orbit around Saturn and deployed the Huygens probe into the upper atmosphere of Saturns largest moon, Titan. During this mission, Porcos team discovered several new moons in orbit around Saturn, as well as new features of its ring system, a hydrocarbon lake on Titan, and water geysers on the moon Enceladus. In 1993, Porco coauthored a paper predicting that acoustic oscillations within Saturn are responsible for creating particular features in its ring system. This prediction was confirmed in 2013 by data collected by the Cassini spacecraft, proving that planetary rings can be used as a sort of seismograph to record oscillatory motions within a host planet. Most recently, Porco served as a member of the Imaging Team for the recent Pluto flyby mission. The author of more than 110 scientific papers, and one of the worlds experts on planetary ring formations, Porco is currently Senior Research Scientist at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colorado.

Randall was born in Queens, in New York City. She received her bachelors degree in physics from Harvard University in 1983, and her PhD in theoretical particle physics in 1987 from the same university, where Howard Georgi served as her dissertation adviser. After graduating, Randall held a postdoctoral fellowship at University of CaliforniaBerkeley and at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory until 1990, after which she returned to Harvard for a year as a member of the exclusive Junior Fellows program there. In 1991, she accepted a position as Assistant Professor of Physics at MIT, where she was promoted to Associate Professor in 1995. In 1998, Randall moved to the Princeton Department of Physics as a full Professor. After another brief stint at MIT, in 2001 she joined the Harvard Physics Department, which has been her home base ever since. She is currently the Frank B. Baird, Jr., Professor of Science in the Physics Department at Harvard, where she is also a member of the Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature/High Energy Theory Group.

Randall works on elementary particles and fundamental forces, and has studied a wide variety of theories and models, the most recent of which involve extra dimensions of space. Moreover, she has made major contributions to such areas of theoretical physics as the standard model, the Higgs boson, supersymmetry, grand unified theories (GUTs), general relativity, cosmological inflation, baryogenesis, and dark matter. With more than 160 scientific papers to her credit, Randall is also the author of four books aimed at a popular audience, including most recently Dark Matter and the Dinosaurs: The Astounding Interconnectedness of the Universe (Ecco, 2015). In addition, she wrote the libretto for an opera, Hypermusic Prologue by Hctor Parra, based on an earlier book of hers, Warped Passages: Unraveling the Mysteries of the Universes Hidden Dimensions (Ecco, 2005). Elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 2008, for a time in the early 2000s Randall was one of the worlds most-cited active theoretical physicists.

Raymo was born in Los Angeles. She received her bachelors degree in geology in 1982 from Brown University. She went on to earn two masters degrees, in 1985 and 1988, from Columbia Universitys Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, as well as a PhD in 1989 from the same institution. After graduating, she spent a year at the University of Melbourne in Australia. Between 1991 and 2011, Raymo taught at University of CaliforniaBerkeley (briefly), at MIT, and at Boston University. For a number of years during this period, she was also an Adjunct Scientist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute. In 2011, she returned to the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, where she is currently Lamont Research Professor and Director of the Lamont-Doherty Core Repository.

Over the course of her career, Raymo has participated in or led field expeditions to Tibet, Patagonia, South Africa, southern India, and Western Australia, among other places. Her particular area of interest lies in understanding the causal factors responsible for the earths climate variation over geological time. This involves many different factors, including variations in the earths orbit (and thus distance from the sun), variations in solar activity, plate tectonics, and the evolution of life (and thus its contribution to the physics and the chemical composition of the land surface, the oceans, and the atmosphere). One of Raymos signal contributions to the field is her Uplift-Weathering Hypothesis (developed with William Ruddiman and Philip Froehlich). This hypothesis states that during mountain formation (tectonic uplift), such as on the Tibetan plateau, many minerals that become exposed at the surface interact with atmospheric CO2 in a process of chemical weathering, leading to a net loss of carbon to the atmosphere and a lowering of the earths mean surface temperature. The hypothesis has proved to be quite complicated in its details, and thus difficult to test. It is still being hotly debated. In 2014, Raymo received two of the most prestigious awards in her field: the Milutin Milankovic Medal of the European Geosciences Union and the Wollaston Medal of the Geological Society of London. In 2016, she was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences.

Seager was born in Toronto, Ontario, in Canada. She earned her bachelors degree in mathematics and physics in 1994 from the University of Toronto. For he graduate work, she moved to Harvard University, where she received her PhD in astronomy in 1999. For her dissertation, Extrasolar Planets under Strong Stellar Irradiation, she worked on developing theoretical models of the atmospheres of extrasolar planets, or exoplanets, under the direction of Dimitar Sasselov. After graduating, she was a Postdoctoral Research Fellow for three years at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. She also held a position as a Senior Research Staff member at the Carnegie Institution of Washington through 2006. In 2007, Seager joined MIT as a Associate Professor; she became a full Professor there in 2010. She is currently the Class of 1941 Professor of Physics and Planetary Science at MIT.

Seager has been at the forefront of efforts to discover and study exoplanets, particularly by analyzing their atmospheres through spectroscopic analysis. The difficulty this presents lies in the extreme faintness of the light reflected by extrasolar planets in relation to the light from the nearby stars they orbit. Seager has worked on several NASA missions past, ongoing, and in the planning stages. A future mission she is currently involved in developing will deploy a novel mechanical device to occlude starlight in order to make the closer study of exoplanets feasible. (See the video clip below for details.) Named a MacArthur Fellow in 2013, Seager is also known for the Seager Equation, a revised version of the famous Drake Equation, which provided a formula for estimating the probability of the existence of extraterrestrial life in the universe. She has co-edited (with L. Drake Deming) the volume of conference proceedings, Scientific Frontiers in Research on Extrasolar Planets (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2003), and authored two popular college textbooks: Exoplanets (University of Arizona Press, 2010) and Exoplanet Atmospheres: Physical Processes (Princeton UP, 2010).

Shotwell was born in Libertyville, Illinois. She received her bachelor of science degree from Northwestern University, and her masters degree in in mechanical engineering and applied mathematics from the same university. She is currently the President and Chief Operating Officer of SpaceX, a private corporation which provides spacecraft- and rocket-manufacturing and -launching services to both government and private-sector customers. SpaceX, founded in 2002 by the companys current CEO, Elon Musk, was the first private company to send a liquid-fuel rocket into earth orbit (2008) and to reach the International Space Station (2012), as well as the first group, period, to effect a propelled vertical landing of a rocket booster (2015) and to develop an integrated, vertical take-off and landing, reusable rocket system (2017).

Shotwell has been with SpaceX from the companys inception in 2002, when she was brought on board as Vice President of Business Development. Before joining SpaceX, she had worked briefly for the Chrysler Corporation, and, from 1988 until 1998, for the Aerospace Corporation, a federally funded, non-profit, research and development center. During this time, she wrote dozens of technical papers developing new concepts and analyzing operational risks in many different fields of space flight, from small spacecraft design to space shuttle integration, and from infrared signature target modeling to thermal analysis in relation to reentry vehicles. Between 1998 and 2002, she served as Director of the space systems division of Microcosm, Inc. During her early years at SpaceX, Shotwell oversaw the development of the highly successful Falcon family of launch vehicles, culminating in a commercial resupply services contract with the International Space Station. The first resupply mission was launched atop a fully reusable Falcon-9 rocket in 2012. She is currently overseeing ambitious plans to send a manned spacecraft into earth orbit next year (2018), with the eventual goal of a manned mission to Mars by 2024.

Silverstein earned her bachelors degree in physics in 1992 from Harvard University, and her PhD in physics in 1996 from Princeton University, where she studied with Ed Witten. After a post-doc at Rutgers University, in 1997 she was appointed an Assistant Professor at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) now known as the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory which is a federally owned particle accelerator laboratory operated by Stanford University. During this early stage of her career, Silverstein was also appointed a MacArthur Fellow and a Member of the Institute for Advanced Study, both in 1999. In 2001, she was promoted to Associate Professor status at SLAC, where she became a full Professor in 2006. During a sabbatical year (2009 2010), she was a Visiting Professor at the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics and in the Department of Physics in University of CaliforniaSanta Barbara.

Silversteins work focuses on the nature of the fundamental laws of physics, as well as the origin and early evolution of the universe. She has made important theoretical contributions to a number of different areas of current research, including the cosmic microwave background radiation, cosmic inflation, dark energy, supersymmetry breaking, the dynamics of interacting scalar fields, the unification of string vacua, and the origin of the hierarchical structure of the universe from the Planck scale to the cosmological horizon. Silverstein is perhaps best known for her work (with Allan Adams and Joseph Polchinski) on closed string tachyon condensation, resulting in the resolution of certain spacetime singularities. She is currently Professor of Physics at SLAC. Sycara has also been very active professionally, serving

Solomon was born in Chicago, Illinois. She received her bachelors degree in chemistry in 1977 from the Illinois Institute of Technology and her PhD in chemistry in 1981 from University of CaliforniaBerkeley. Upon graduating, Solomon went to work for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in Boulder, Colorado, where she spent the bulk of her career. There, she worked in the Aeronomy Laboratory, the Earth System Research Laboratory, and at the time of her retirement in 2011, was head of the Chemistry and Climate Processes Group. That year, she joined MITs Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences. It was while working for NOAA during the 1980s that Solomon did the work upon which her reputation primarily rests. In the 1970s, it had been observed that the ozone layer on the stratosphere which screens deadly cosmic radiation and upon which all life on earth depends was becoming depleted. The problem was especially acute over Antarctica, giving rise to the phrase ozone hole.

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50 Top Women in STEM | The Best Schools

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CryoPort (CYRX) Reaches $6.92 After 8.00% Up Move; 3 Analysts Are Bullish Energy Fuels (USA) (NYSEMKT:UUUU … – HuronReport

Posted: September 3, 2017 at 3:41 pm

August 30, 2017 - By Marguerite Chambers

The stock of CryoPort Inc (NASDAQ:CYRX) is a huge mover today! About 67,734 shares traded. CryoPort Inc (NASDAQ:CYRX) has risen 71.00% since August 30, 2016 and is uptrending. It has outperformed by 54.30% the S&P500.The move comes after 5 months positive chart setup for the $170.75M company. It was reported on Aug, 30 by Barchart.com. We have $7.47 PT which if reached, will make NASDAQ:CYRX worth $13.66 million more.

Among 3 analysts covering Clean Energy Fuels (NYSEMKT:UUUU), 3 have Buy rating, 0 Sell and 0 Hold. Therefore 100% are positive. Clean Energy Fuels had 5 analyst reports since August 19, 2015 according to SRatingsIntel. The rating was maintained by Roth Capital with Buy on Thursday, October 1. Rodman & Renshaw maintained the shares of UUUU in report on Thursday, September 22 with Buy rating. The stock of Energy Fuels Inc (USA) (NYSEMKT:UUUU) has Buy rating given on Thursday, October 1 by TH Capital. Roth Capital maintained the stock with Buy rating in Monday, November 23 report. See Energy Fuels Inc (USA) (NYSEMKT:UUUU) latest ratings:

Energy Fuels Inc. is engaged in conventional and in situ (ISR) uranium extraction and recovery, along with the exploration, permitting and evaluation of uranium properties in the United States. The company has market cap of $130.67 million. The Firm operates through two divisions: ISR Uranium and Conventional Uranium. It currently has negative earnings. It conducts its ISR activities through its Nichols Ranch Project, located in northeast Wyoming.

About 56,842 shares traded. Energy Fuels Inc (USA) (NYSEMKT:UUUU) has declined 22.22% since August 30, 2016 and is downtrending. It has underperformed by 38.92% the S&P500.

Cryoport, Inc. is a provider of cryogenic logistics solutions to the life sciences industry through its purpose-built packaging, information technology and specialized cold chain logistics expertise. The company has market cap of $170.75 million. The Firm provides logistics solutions for biologic materials, such as immunotherapies, stem cells, chimeric antigen receptors (CAR)-T cells, and reproductive cells for clients. It currently has negative earnings. The Companys Cryoport Express Solution includes a cloud logistics operating platform, which is branded as the Cryoportal.

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CryoPort (CYRX) Reaches $6.92 After 8.00% Up Move; 3 Analysts Are Bullish Energy Fuels (USA) (NYSEMKT:UUUU ... - HuronReport

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FDA Cracks Down On Stem-Cell Clinics Selling Unapproved Treatments – Wyoming Public Media

Posted: September 2, 2017 at 5:44 am

The Food and Drug Administration is cracking down on "unscrupulous" clinics selling unproven and potentially dangerous treatments involving stem cells.

Hundreds of clinics around the country have started selling stem cell therapies that supposedly use stem cells but have not been approved as safe and effective by the FDA, according to the agency.

"There are a small number of unscrupulous actors who have seized on the clinical promise of regenerative medicine, while exploiting the uncertainty, in order to make deceptive, and sometimes corrupt assurances to patients based on unproven and, in some cases, dangerously dubious products," FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb said in a statement Monday.

The FDA has taken action against clinics in California and Florida.

The agency sent a warning letter to the US Stem Cell Clinic of Sunrise, Fla., and its chief scientific officer, Kristin Comella, for "marketing stem cell products without FDA approval and significant deviations from current good manufacturing practice requirements."

The clinic is one of many around the country that claim to use stem cells derived from a person's own fat to treat a variety of conditions, including Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and lung and heart diseases, the FDA says.

The Florida clinic had been previously linked to several cases of blindness caused by attempts to use fat stem cells to treat macular degeneration.

The FDA also said it has taken "decisive action" to "prevent the use of a potentially dangerous and unproven treatment" offered by StemImmune Inc. of San Diego, Calif., and administered to patients at California Stem Cell Treatment Centers in Rancho Mirage and Beverly Hills, Calif.

As part of that action, the U.S. Marshals Service seized five vials of live vaccinia virus vaccine that is supposed to be reserved for people at high risk for smallpox but was being used as part of a stem-cell treatment for cancer, according to the FDA. "The unproven and potentially dangerous treatment was being injected intravenously and directly into patients' tumors," according to an FDA statement.

Smallpox essentially has been eradicated from the planet, but samples are kept in reserve in the U.S. and Russia, and vaccines are kept on hand as a result.

But Elliot Lander, medical director of the California Stem Cell Treatment Centers, denounced the FDA's actions in an interview with Shots.

"I think it's egregious," Lander says. "I think they made a mistake. I'm really baffled by this."

While his clinics do charge some patients for treatments that use stem cells derived from fat, Lander says, none of the cancer patients were charged and the treatments were administered as part of a carefully designed research study.

"Nobody was charged a single penny," Lander says. "We're just trying to move the field forward."

In a written statement, U.S. Stem Cell also defended its activities.

"The safety and health of our patients are our number one priority and the strict standards that we have in place follow the laws of the Food and Drug Administration," according to the statement.

"We have helped thousands of patients harness their own healing potential," the statement says. "It would be a mistake to limit these therapies from patients who need them when we are adhering to top industry standards."

But stem-cell researchers praised the FDA's actions.

"This is spectacular," says George Daley, dean of the Harvard Medical School and a leading stem-cell researcher. "This is the right thing to do."

Daley praised the FDA's promise to provide clear guidance soon for vetting legitimate stem-cell therapies while cracking down on "snake-oil salesmen" marketing unproven treatments.

Stem-cell research is "a major revolution in medicine. It's bound to ultimately deliver cures," Daley says. "But it's so early in the field," he adds. "Unfortunately, there are unscrupulous practitioners and clinics that are marketing therapies to patients, often at great expense, that haven't been proven to work and may be unsafe."

Others agreed.

"I see this is a major, positive step by the FDA," says Paul Knoepfler, a professor of cell biology at the University of of California, Davis, who has documented the proliferation of stem-cell clinics.

"I'm hoping that this signals a historic shift by the FDA to tackle the big problem of stem-cell clinics selling unapproved and sometimes dangerous stem cell "treatments" that may not be real treatments," Knoepfler says.

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A Chip That Reprograms Cells Helps Healing, At Least In Mice – Wyoming Public Media

Posted: August 12, 2017 at 6:41 am

Scientists have created an electronic wafer that reprogrammed damaged skin cells on a mouse's leg to grow new blood vessels and help a wound heal.

One day, creator Chandan Sen hopes, it could be used to be used to treat wounds on humans. But that day is a long way off as are many other regeneration technologies in the works. Like Sen, some scientists have begun trying to directly reprogram one cell type into another for healing, while others are attempting to build organs or tissues from stem cells and organ-shaped scaffolding.

But other scientists have greeted Sen's mouse experiment, published in Nature Nanotechnology on Monday, with extreme skepticism. "My impression is that there's a lot of hyperbole here," says Sean Morrison, a stem cell researcher at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. "The idea you can [reprogram] a limited number of cells in the skin and improve blood flow to an entire limb I think it's a pretty fantastic claim. I find it hard to believe."

When the device is placed on live skin and activated, it sends a small electrical pulse onto the skin cells' membrane, which opens a tiny window on the cell surface. "It's about 2 percent of the cell membrane," says Sen, who is a researcher in regenerative medicine at Ohio State University. Then, using a microscopic chute, the chip shoots new genetic code through that window and into the cell where it can begin reprogramming the cell for a new fate.

Sen says the whole process takes less than 0.1 seconds and can reprogram the cells resting underneath the device, which is about the size of a big toenail. The best part is that it's able to successfully deliver its genetic payload almost 100 percent of the time, he says. "No other gene delivery technique can deliver over 98 percent efficiency. That is our triumph."

To test the device's healing capabilities, Sen and his colleagues took a few mice with damaged leg arteries and placed the chip on the skin near the damaged artery. That reprogrammed a centimeter or two of skin to turn into blood vessel cells. Sen says the cells that received the reprogramming genes actually started replicating the reprogramming code that the researchers originally inserted in the chip, repackaging it and sending it out to other nearby cells. And that initiated the growth of a new network of blood vessels in the leg that replaced the function of the original, damaged artery, the researchers say. "Not only did we make new cells, but those cells reorganized to make functional blood vessels that plumb with the existing vasculature and carry blood," Sen says. That was enough for the leg to fully recover. Injured mice that didn't get the chip never healed.

When the researchers used the chip on healthy legs, no new blood vessels formed. Sen says because injured mouse legs were was able to incorporate the chip's reprogramming code into the ongoing attempt to heal.

That idea hasn't quite been accepted by other researchers, however. "It's just a hand waving argument," Morrison says. "It could be true, but there's no evidence that reprogramming works differently in an injured tissue versus a non-injured tissue."

What's more, the role of exosomes, the vesicles that supposedly transmit the reprogramming command to other cells, has been contentious in medical science. "There are all manners of claims of these vesicles. It's not clear what these things are, and if it's a real biological process or if it's debris," Morrison says. "In my lab, we would want to do a lot more characterization of these exosomes before we make any claims like this."

Sen says that the theory that introduced reprogramming code from the chip or any other gene delivery method does need more work, but he isn't deterred by the criticism. "This clearly is a new conceptual development, and skepticism is understandable," he says. But he is steadfast in his confidence about the role of reprogrammed exosomes. When the researchers extracted the vesicles and injected them into skin cells in the lab, Sen says those cells converted into blood vessel cells in the petri dish. "I believe this is definitive evidence supporting that [these exosomes] may induce cell conversion."

Even if the device works as well as Sen and his colleagues hope it does, they only tested it on mice. Repairing deeper injuries, like vital organ damage, would also require inserting the chip into the body to reach the wound site. It has a long way to go before it can ever be considered for use on humans. Right now, scientists can only directly reprogram adult cells into a limited selection of other cell types like muscle, neurons and blood vessel cells. It'll be many years before scientists understand how to reprogram one cell type to become part of any of our other, many tissues.

Still, Morrison says the chip is an interesting bit of technology. "It's a cool idea, being able to release [genetic code] through nano channels," he says. "There may be applications where that's advantageous in some way in the future."

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Erectile Dysfunction in Loveland, CO

Posted: October 19, 2015 at 5:44 pm

Mallory Family Wellness offers stem cell therapy for erectile dysfunction for the residents of Loveland, Fort Collins, and the surrounding Northern Colorado communities.

ED is a mans inability to consistently produce or maintain an erection during sexual activity. Most commonly it is caused by a physical issue. Some disease related issues which can cause erectile dysfunction include: heart disease, diabetes, prostate or kidney disease, neurological disorders or blood vessel disease. Other physical causes include: surgery, injury, hormone imbalance, enlarged prostate, tobacco, drugs, alcohol or stress. In most cases it is not simply mind over matter.

ED is something many men do not like to talk about. At Mallory Family Wellness, we make it our business to talk to our patients about health concerns of all types. Our number one goal is treating the whole person and not just the symptoms. ED is nothing to be embarrassed about and is a condition we take seriously at Mallory Family Wellness.

ED can be treated successfully using stem cell therapy. Stem cells are harvested from your own body fat. Once harvested, the stem cells are purified and then infused back into the body through an intravenous (into a vein) injection. For ED, injections are also performed directly into the penis. The infused stem cells are able to transform into endothelial cells causing a secretion of vasculotrophic and neurotrophic factors. Treating erectile dysfunction with stem cell therapy increases blood flow and pressure which means a firmer, more sustainable erection. To find out more about this safe and affordable therapy contact Mallory Family Wellness at 970-669-9245.

The cost of your stem cell therapy is dependent upon your individual condition, nature of the procedure needed, and responsiveness to the therapy. Dr. Mallorys staff will discuss stem cell injection therapy prices with you on an individual basis. With regards to the therapy, it is not covered by insurance, as its categorized with other transplant type therapies and is considered investigational. It is typically eligible for coverage out of a Healthcare Savings Account (HSA) or Healthcare Retirement Account (HRA).

Payment for the procedure may be made by cash, check or HSA/HRA credit cards*. Mallory Family Wellness also works with CareCredit to provide financing options for our patients. You can be pre-approved for CareCredit financing of your procedure within a few hours.

*Patients should verify this eligibility.

Dr. Mallory specializes in regenerative medicine; visit our other stem cell therapy pages including asthma, COPD, ischemic limb disorders, and ortho-arthritic joint injury.

At Mallory Family Wellness, you are our priority. With advanced training in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine, we dont just treat the symptoms. We treat the whole person to address the root of the problem. And well work with you so you can prevent illness and remain healthy.

See for yourself why families from Loveland, Fort Collins, and the surrounding Northern Colorado communities, as well as Wyoming, North Dakota, South Dakota, Kansas, Nebraska, and Iowa, come to us. You can count on us to provide optimal care for your optimal health!

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Erectile Dysfunction in Loveland, CO

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