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Category Archives: Mississippi Stem Cells

Mississippi INBRE Research Efforts Aided by Technology Upgrade – Southern Miss Now

Posted: June 23, 2021 at 1:58 am

Fri, 06/18/2021 - 16:14pm | By: David Tisdale

An enhancement of the cutting edge technology employed by the Mississippi INBREs (IDeA Network of Biomedical Research Excellence) Imaging Facility, headquartered at The University of Southern Mississippi (USM), will keep its affiliate faculty and student researchers at the forefront in STEM (Science, Technology Engineering and Mathematics) research.

The Mississippi INBRE Imaging Core has upgraded its existing Leica SP8 confocal microscope to the STELLARIS STED super resolution platform, one of the most complete imaging systems in the region. The instrument was acquired through funding from the NIH-supported Mississippi INBRE Imaging Core Facility, as well as an NSF Major Research Instrumentation Program grant whose Principal Investigator (PI) is Dr. Alex Flynt, an associate professor in USMs Center for Molecular and Cellular Biosciences.

The Mississippi INBRE Imaging Facility, directed by Dr. Jonathan Lindner, provides imaging and microscopy expertise to researchers throughout the state, offering access to and training on biomedical research equipment at no cost to users. The facility houses several types of microscopes, as well as a variety of large-scale instruments. The imaging facility also offers computational services and expertise to Mississippi researchers.

The addition of the STELLARIS STED super resolution microscope will enhance the quality and scope of biomedical research in the state of Mississippi, accommodating the varied needs of the INBRE Imaging Core user base. This cutting-edge technology is now accessible to faculty and students at USM and across the state who otherwise would not have access to super-resolution confocal microscopy.

According to Dr. Flynt, while light-based microscopes are indispensable to the advancement of many scientific fields. Unfortunately, he says, there is a lower limit to the size of objects that can be observed due to the physics of light itself, a barrier that impedes investigation of minuscule objects. Fortunately, recent advances have vaulted over this hurdle, yielding super-resolution microscopes such as the STELLARIS STED.

This specific super-resolution technology is well-suited for imaging dynamic objects like those in cells, as well as nanoparticles created in the laboratory, Dr. Flynt said. Areas of research that will be investigated with this microscope include material scientists studying assembly of plastic-like materials, cell biologists, and biochemists investigating cell components important in Alzheimers and genetic tools, and microbiologists who examine bacterial community structures involved in infection and plant-soil interactions.

Dr. Lindner concurs, noting also that researchers from a broad base of biological, chemical, and material science fields, including cellular and developmental biology, virology, biochemistry, high performance materials, and nanoparticle development, can greatly benefit from the instruments unique and powerful capabilities.

Microscopes are essential tools for the investigation of biological and molecular systems, Dr. Lindner said. Access to cutting-edge instruments is vital for cell biology, embryology, biochemistry, and imaging advanced materials.

Further, the addition of the advanced microscope will provide important training opportunities for students, also enhancing Mississippi STEM education.

The Leica STELLARIS STED Super-Resolution Confocal Microscope upgrades the previous confocal microscope to a fully automated platform with a 3D STimulated Emission Depletion (STED) super resolution module. The STED technology enables fluorescence microscopy approaches for visualizing objects smaller than the diffraction limit of light, increasing resolution up to 10 times more than traditional microscopes. For reference, the diameter of a nucleus of an average human cell is approximately 10 micrometers. STED super-resolution imaging is capable of resolution below 50 nanometers, over 200 times smaller than a nucleus. This enables the real-time study of sub-cellular molecular interactions and mechanisms on the nanoscale.

The system is capable of both conventional confocal scanning and resonant scanning for rapid low-light illumination imaging, which is ideal for live specimens. It is equipped with an automated motorized stage with upgraded software for expanded view image stitching options, 3D modeling, FRAP, and co-localization. Additionally, the instrument is outfitted with an Okolab CO2chamber for long term mammalian tissue culture imaging, and a Hamamatsu Flash camera for ultrafast acquisition.

Mississippi INBRE, directed by USM Professor Dr. Mohamed Elasri, is a statewide program supported by an award from the National Institutes of General Medical Sciences. Its mission is to enhance the biomedical foundation in Mississippi and engage talented researchers and students in biomedical research projects that will increase the state's research competitiveness, as well as positively impact the health of the states citizens.

For more information about Mississippi INBRE, visit msinbre.org.

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Lab-grown meat meets resistance from industry | Opinion – The Reflector online

Posted: January 24, 2020 at 1:56 pm

Does the thought of a barbecue make you ravenously hungry? Imagine a mouth-watering image of beautifully seasoned meat, fresh off a grill or right out of the smoker, a charred texture, intoxicating aroma and deliciously satisfying taste only well-cooked meat provides. Now, imagine if you did not have to kill an animal to get it.

Most Americans follow a diet that includes meat with every meal. There are also vegetarians or vegans who reject meat for a variety of reasons, and their choice is equally valid. Thankfully, recent developments in lab-grown meat will satisfy each group, yet many are still skeptical about it.

Yes, I understand the hesitation that surfaces with the concept of 'lab-grown.' It draws in concepts like beakers, Petri-dishes and imitation. Several questions arise, like if vegetarians would be okay with it. Could cultured meat be considered kosher or halal? Some scoff at the idea, thinking it exists in the same 'plant-based' spectrum of veggie-burgers or tofu; however, lab-grown meat does not.

First, we need to explain the difference. Plant-based meat, like tofu, has been around for thousands of years. They mainly rely on soybeans, gluten fibers or some alternative vegetarian or vegan option. Lab-grown meat, known as cultured meat, is a form of cellular agriculture that creates artificial tissues from cultured animal cells.

Basically, it is meat down to the molecular level. The only difference is cultured meat uses stem cells and does not require the slaughtering of animals. As a source of protein, there are few things on this planet as delicious as meat. The problem is the inefficient energy requirements of our current production system. It takes ages to raise animals for meat production, and they require more feed intake than the overall output of meat.

There is also the slew of other unpalatable factors that are a part of the current system. Grotesque slaughterhouse methods, apathetic living conditions, growth hormones and the horrific note that 70% of all antibiotics go toward animals, as reported by Lisa Baertlein and Tom Polansek ofReuters. With a lot of potential, the demand for more compassionate options of meat is sure to grow once it becomes globally available.

A major benefit cultured meat has compared to traditional livestock is scalability. Due to the enormous human population, we will have to produce more food over the next few decades than the last few hundred years combined. Right now, livestock is incredibly inefficient and a major issue for the planet. According to a Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations report, livestock accounts for over 14% of greenhouse gas emissions.

Given the human population has doubled in the last 50 years, we have to become more efficient. Cultured meat might be an adequate solution to industry problems. According to New-Harvest.org, a cellular agriculture research institute, the Netherlands kicked off government-funded research on cultured meat in 2005. By August 2013, Dr. Mark Post, a professor at Eindhoven Technical University, was showcasing the first lab-grown burger to the public. The burger was made up of around 20,000 muscle strands and cost roughly 250,000 to produce.

From that moment on, advancements in technology were bound to occur. Silke Koltrowitz and Andrs GonzlezwithReuters report cultured meat could hit $9 a patty by 2021. Economies of scale are important to consider, which may lead to cultured sources becoming cheaper than the livestock variety. It makes sense why many would be willing to try cultured options if it winds up cheaper than the slaughtered standard. Soon enough, both will co-exist in the supermarket, but the concept of meat without death is a strong selling point. That said, before the excitement grows, there are a few issues that have not been explored yet.

There is little publicly available scientific data, which causes concern for efficiency metrics. There is also emerging governmental regulation that stands in the way of new cellular agriculture companies. The conventional meat industry does not want cultured meat to be labeled "meat," as it will directly interfere with their business. According to Laurel Handel with Handel Food Law LLC, over 10 states have passed laws prohibiting the label stating "meat" if the food is not derived from animal carcasses. Mississippi's SB 2022 took effect last July and follows similar legislation from other states.

For me, I am interested enough to try meat that did not require slaughter. There is also the exciting possibility of getting a cheaper, but still good quality, sirloin or an incredible wagyu-beef. Slaughtered meat will not disappear, but a reduction in reliance would leave a fantastic impact on our planet. It is all about options, and I am certain we are all partially curious if it tastes the same.

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1 of 2 escapees from troubled Mississippi prison in custody – Minneapolis Star Tribune

Posted: January 5, 2020 at 4:13 am

One of two prisoners believed to have escaped from one of several Mississippi prisons recently rocked by violence is back in custody, authorities said early Sunday.

The Mississippi Department of Corrections tweeted just before 3:30 a.m. that David May was in custody. Further details weren't immediately released.

Gov. Phil Bryant on Saturday said via Twitter that he directed "the use of all necessary assets and personnel" to find the two inmates who escaped Saturday from the Mississippi State Penitentiary at Parchman. Five inmates have died in prison violence since Dec. 29; three of those deaths have occurred at Parchman.

The corrections department said in a Facebook post that May, 42, and Dillion Williams, 27, were discovered missing from Parchman during an "emergency count" about 1:45 a.m. Saturday. May is serving a life sentence for two aggravated assault convictions in Harrison County, and Williams is serving a 40-year sentence for residential burglary and aggravated assault in Marshall County.

The state Department of Public Safety deployed state troopers and the highway patrol's special operations group to help the Department of Corrections find the two inmates and to help restore order at the troubled facility that they escaped from, Bryant said.

The department said via Twitter on Saturday afternoon that there were no major disturbances occurring at Parchman.

"There was a minor fire at Unit 30 earlier this week. That fire, set by an inmate, was immediately extinguished. Like other facilities in the prison system, the prison has limited movement," the department tweeted.

Parchman is a series of cell blocks scattered across thousands of acres of farmland in Mississippi's Delta region. Inmates who escape their cells sometimes don't make it off the property.

Mississippi's outgoing prisons chief said Friday that four of the five killings of inmates since Sunday stem from gang violence, as guards struggle to maintain control of restive inmates.

Corrections Commissioner Pelicia Hall said the department won't confirm the names of the gangs "for security purposes," but relatives of inmates who spoke to The Associated Press and other news outlets said there's an ongoing confrontation between the Vice Lords and Black Gangster Disciples.

It wouldn't be the first time the two gangs have warred behind bars in Mississippi, with previous confrontations at Parchman and other prisons over the past 15 years. A 2015 survey found nearly 3,000 Black Gangster Disciple members and nearly 2,000 Vice Lords in prisons statewide.

"These are trying times for the Mississippi Department of Corrections," Hall said Friday.

All state prisons statewide remained locked down Saturday, Bryant said, with inmates confined to cells, and no visitors allowed.

T he first of five inmates identified as dying was Terrandance Dobbins, 40, who died Sunday at the South Mississippi Correctional Institute in Leakesville. Two days later, Walter Gates, 25, was stabbed and several other inmates were injured at Parchman during a fight that spread to multiple units of the sprawling prison. Then on Thursday, Gregory Emary, 26, was killed at the Chickasaw County Regional Correctional Facility, a county-run jail that holds state inmates. Also Thursday, 32-year-old Roosevelt Holliman was fatally stabbed at Parchman in a fracas that led to multiple injuries. Before dawn Friday, Denorris Howell, 36, was found dead in his cell at Parchman.

Corrections officials have repeatedly not answered questions about how many people overall have been injured, or whether there have been other violent incidents in prisons.

Mississippi's prison system has struggled to fill guard vacancies, with Hall saying it's difficult to attract people with salaries that start below $25,000 a year. Some guards end up bringing illegal drugs and cellphones into prisons. Criminal charges were filed in 2014 against 26 state correctional officers.

Some prisons, including South Mississippi, have areas where many prisoners are housed in bunks in one large room, instead of individual cells. This can lead to worsened security problems. South Mississippi, in Greene County, was locked down for almost all of 2019, in part because of guard shortages.

The violence came even as U.S. District Judge William Barbour ruled Tuesday that while conditions may have previously been poor at East Mississippi Correctional Facility near Meridian, there's no longer any evidence that the privately run prison is violating inmates' rights.

Hall announced Tuesday that she will resign in mid-January to take a private sector job, signaling incoming Gov. Tate Reeves won't retain her upon taking office Jan. 14.

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1 of 2 escapees from troubled Mississippi prison in custody - Minneapolis Star Tribune

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Stem Cell Tupelo Mississippi 38801

Posted: December 21, 2018 at 10:43 am

Stem cell treatment has ended up being a popular debate in the global medical scene. This extremely questionable therapy has actually received mixed viewpoints from different stakeholders in the healthcare industry and has likewise brought in the attention of politicians, spiritual leaders and the basic population at large. Stem cell treatment is considered a revolutionary treatment for people dealing with a vast array of degenerative conditions. Some common questions regarding this treatment are responded to below.

Are you a stem cell therapy provider in Tupelo MS 38801? Contact us for more information about joining our website.

Stem cells can be described as blank state or non-specialized cells that have the capability to become customized cells in the body such as bone, muscle, nerve or organ cells. This indicates that these special cells can be utilized to restore or establish a vast array of damaged cells and tissues in the body. Stem cell therapy is therefore a treatment that focuses on accomplishing tissue regrowth and can be utilized to treat health conditions and illnesses such as osteoarthritis, degenerative disc illness, spinal cord injury, muscular degeneration, motor neuron disease, ALS, Parkinsons, cardiovascular disease and much more.

Being a treatment that is still under research, stem cell treatment has not been fully accepted as a feasible treatment choice for the above mentioned health conditions and diseases. A great deal of studio is presently being carried out by researchers and medical specialists in various parts of the world to make this treatment viable and reliable. There are however various restrictions imposed by governments on research including embryonic stem cells.

Presently, there have not been many case studies carried out for this form of treatment. However, with the few case studies that have actually been performed, one of the significant concerns that has actually been raised is the boost in a patients risk of establishing cancer. Cancer is triggered by the rapid multiplication of cells that have a tendency not to pass away so easily. Stem cells have been connected with comparable development elements that may lead to formation of growths and other malignant cells in clients.

Contact us for more information about stem cell doctor near Tupelo MS 38801

Stem cells can be drawn out from a young embryo after conception. These stem cells are typically referred to as embryonic stem cells. After the stem cells are extracted from the embryo, the embryo is ended. This is generally one of the significant causes of controversy in the field of stem cell research study. Many individuals argue that termination of an embryo is dishonest and inappropriate.

Stem cells can still be acquired through other means as they can be found in the blood, bone marrow and umbilical cables of adult people. Regular body cells can likewise be reverse-engineered to become stem cells that have actually restricted capabilities.

New research has actually nevertheless revealed pledge as researchers focus on developing stem cells that do not form into growths in later treatment phases. These stem cells can therefore efficiently change into other kinds of specialized cells. This therapy is therefore worth investigating into as numerous clients can take advantage of this revolutionary treatment.

stem cell doctor close to Tupelo MS 38801

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Main address:Tupelo, Mississippi, 38801

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Research: Surgeons too enthusiastic about offering spinal …

Posted: July 26, 2018 at 3:49 pm

In our practice we often see patients who are in severe back pain. They have an MRI, X-ray and/or scan that shows an inaccurate picture of what is causing their pain. The MRI cannot show muscle spasms from a simple back strain which can cause excruciating pain. Conversely, the MRI can show a large herniated disc which may be completely painless. Yet that large herniated disc will send the patient to surgery. As you will read in the research below, this was considered unsupported enthusiasm for the surgical management of discogenic back pain. Now surgeons are publishing new data with a tempered enthusiasm.

Marc Darrow MD, JD. Thank you for reading my article. You can ask me your questions about degenerative disc disease using the contact form below.

The decision to perform surgery in patients with predominantly axial pain (low back pain caused degenerative disc disease) should be made with the understanding that many patients may not respond to the treatment.

April 2018,European journal of orthopaedic surgery & traumatology

In a study out of Greece, surgeons reassessed a few of the most commonly performed spinal fusion alternative surgical procedures.(1) Their reassessment surroundedadjacent level disease. This is advanced degeneration above and below the fusion site. The researchers of this study examinedmotion preservation surgical methods that were recently developed in order to overcome this complication.

(Motion preservation surgical methods) include total disc replacement, laminoplasty (cutting away of bone and other pressure causing material on the nerves), interspinous implants (spacers to hold nerve pathways open) and dynamic posterior stabilization systems (not a fusion but similar. This procedure allows controlled movement of the spine).

What is being said in the above research and the below research is, these surgeries may not be as helpful as doctors thought.

In an editorial from theDepartment of Neurosurgery, University of Virginia, doctors found: Without prospective trials with non-conflicted surgeons and standardized selection criteria, the true role for sacroiliac jointfusion procedures in the treatmentof chronic lower back pain will remain murky. The consequences of the unsupported enthusiasm for the surgical management of discogenic back pain still negatively impacts the public perception of spinal surgeons. 2

Enthusiasm they say from surgeons is not realistic. When the surgical outcome is poor, the patients are surprised. Researchers say patients should have been told upfront of the likelihood of complication

Journal of back and musculoskeletal rehabilitation, May 2017

Four to fifty percent of patients will developFailedBack Surgery Syndrome followinglumbarspine surgery. Repeated surgeries lead to escalating costs and subsequent decreases in success rate.

2016:University of Minnesotas Department of Orthopedic Surgery inClinicoEconomics and outcomes research:

The 60% may be considered an improvement over results found in other studies. In a heavily cited 2006 landmark study from the Schulthess Clinic in Zurich Switzerland, doctors reported on 17 patientswith chronic low back pain, with a positive response to specific diagnostic tests for sacroiliac joint dysfunction who a bilateral sacroiliacfusion procedure.

At the time of follow-up (on average 39 months after surgery),

In the August 3, 2016 edition of the New York Times, author Gina Kolata wrote:

Back to MRI assessment

Is MRI to blame? Doctors at the Leiden University Medical Center in the Netherlandsquestioned whether or not MRI has any value in determining sciatica treatment or diagnosisand why surgeons rely so heavily on the readings.(5)We often see patients who visited the doctor who had unsupported enthusiasm for sacroiliac joint dysfunction surgery because they had an MRI showing a herniation between the L5 and S1 vertebrae and a prognosis of impending surgery.

Spinal Fusion Alternative: Regenerative medicine for problems of the spine

In a new paper Japanese doctors came up with a scoring system to help clinicians determine if sacroiliac joint pain was originating from the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine.

The ligaments are important as attested to by researchers atUniversity of Mississippi Medical Center. As important as the vertebral ligaments are in maintaining the integrity of the spinal column and protecting the contents of the spinal canal, a single detailed review of their anatomy and function is missing in the literature.(7)

Why not get a consultation to see if the ligaments are the cause of your back pain before your embark on surgery?

The video below shows treatment of the low back with bone marrow derived stem cells. Compare this to surgery.

STEM CELL INSTITUTEA leading provider of bone marrow derived stem cell therapy, Platelet Rich Plasma and Prolotherapy in Los Angeles and the world!11645 WILSHIRE BOULEVARD SUITE 120, LOS ANGELES, CA 90025PHONE: (800) 300-9300

1: Gelalis ID, Papadopoulos DV, Giannoulis DK, Tsantes AG, Korompilias AV. Spinalmotion preservation surgery: indications and applications. Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol. 2018 Apr;28(3):335-342. doi: 10.1007/s00590-017-2052-3. Epub 2017 Oct 6. Review. PubMed PMID: 28986691.

2. Shaffrey CI, Smith JS. Editorial: Stabilization of the sacroiliac joint. Neurosurg Focus. 2013 Jul;35(2 Suppl):Editorial. doi: 10.3171/2013.V2.FOCUS13273.

3 Polly DW, Cher D. Ignoring the sacroiliac joint in chronic low back pain is costly. ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR. 2016;8:23-31. doi:10.2147/CEOR.S97345.

4 Schtz U1, Grob D. Poor outcome following bilateral sacroiliac joint fusion for degenerative sacroiliac joint syndrome. Acta Orthop Belg. 2006 Jun;72(3):296-308.

5.el Barzouhi A, Vleggeert-Lankamp CL, Lycklama Nijeholt GJ, Van der Kallen BF, van den Hout WB, Koes BW, Peul WC; Leiden-Hague Spine Intervention Prognostic Study Group. Predictive value of MRI in decision making for disc surgery for sciatica. J Neurosurg Spine. 2013 Dec;19(6):678-87. doi: 10.3171/2013.9.SPINE13349. Epub 2013 Oct 18.

6. Kurosawa D, Murakami E, Ozawa H, Koga H, Isu T, Chiba Y, Abe E, Unoki E, Musha Y, Ito K, Katoh S, Yamaguchi T. A Diagnostic Scoring System for Sacroiliac Joint Pain Originating from the Posterior Ligament.Pain Med. 2016 Jun 10. pii: pnw117. [Epub ahead of print]

7. Butt AM, Gill C, Demerdash A, Watanabe K, Loukas M, Rozzelle CJ, Tubbs RS. A comprehensive review of the sub-axial ligaments of the vertebral column: part I anatomy and function. Childs Nerv Syst. 2015 May 1.

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Sanguinaria – Wikipedia

Posted: July 15, 2018 at 1:44 am

"Bloodroot" redirects here. For other plants known as bloodroot, see Eomecon and Lachnanthes.Not to be confused with the grass genus Sanguinaria, now divided between Digitaria and Paspalum.

Sanguinaria canadensis (bloodroot)[1] is a perennial, herbaceous flowering plant native to eastern North America. It is the only species in the genus Sanguinaria, included in the family Papaveraceae, and most closely related to Eomecon of eastern Asia.

Sanguinaria canadensis is also known as bloodwort,[1] redroot,[1] red puccoon,[1] and sometimes pauson. It has also been known as tetterwort,[1] although that name is also used to refer to Chelidonium majus. Plants are variable in leaf and flower shape and have in the past been separated out as different subspecies due to these variable shapes. Currently most taxonomic treatments include these different forms in one highly variable species. In bloodroot, the juice is red and poisonous.[2]

Bloodroot grows from 20 to 50cm (8 to 20in) tall. It has one large basal leaf, up to 25cm (10in) across, with five to seven lobes.[3] The leaves and flowers sprout from a reddish rhizome with bright orange sap that grows at or slightly below the soil surface. The color of the sap is the reason for the genus name Sanguinaria, from Latin sanguinarius "bloody".[4] The rhizomes grow longer each year, and branch to form colonies. Plants start to bloom before the foliage unfolds in early spring. After blooming the leaves unfurl to their full size and go summer dormant in mid to late summer, later than some other spring ephemerals.

The flowers bloom from March to May depending on the region and weather. They have 812 delicate white petals, many yellow stamens, and two sepals below the petals, which fall off after the flowers open. Each flower stem is clasped by a leaf as it emerges from the ground. The flowers open when they are in sunlight.[5] They are pollinated by small bees and flies. Seeds develop in green pods 4 to 6cm (112 to 214in) long, and ripen before the foliage goes dormant. The seeds are round and black to orange-red when ripe, and have white elaiosomes, which are eaten by ants.

Bloodroot leaves clasping the flower stems in early spring

White petals and yellow stamens

Fruit (a pod holding the seeds) in early summer

Bloodroot leaves after flowering

A carpet of bloodroot leaves in late spring

Bloodroot is native to eastern North America from Nova Scotia, Canada southward to Florida, United States, and west to Great Lakes and down the Mississippi embayment.

Sanguinaria canadensis plants are found growing in moist to dry woods and thickets, often on floodplains and near shores or streams on slopes. They grow less frequently in clearings and meadows or on dunes, and are rarely found in disturbed sites. Deer will feed on the plants in early spring.

Bloodroot is one of many plants whose seeds are spread by ants, a process called myrmecochory. The seeds have a fleshy organ called an elaiosome that attracts ants. The ants take the seeds to their nest, where they eat the elaiosomes, and put the seeds in their nest debris, where they are protected until they germinate. They also benefit from growing in a medium made richer by the ant nest debris.

The flowers produce pollen, but no nectar. Various bees and flies visit the flowers looking in vain for nectar, for instance sweat bees in the genera Lasioglossum and Halictus, cuckoo bees in the genus Nomada, small carpenter bees (Ceratina), and bee flies in the genus Bombylius. Some bees come to collect pollen, including mining bees (Andrena), which are the most effective pollinators.[6][7]

The bitter and toxic leaves and rhizomes are not often eaten by mammalian herbivores.[7]

Sanguinaria canadensis is cultivated as an ornamental plant. The double-flowered forms are prized by gardeners for their large showy white flowers, which are produced very early in the gardening season. Bloodroot flower petals are shed within a day or two of pollination, so the flower display is short-lived, but the double forms bloom much longer than the normal forms. The double flowers are made up of stamens that have been changed into petal-like parts, making pollination more difficult.

The double-flowered cultivar S. canadensis f. multiplex 'Plena' has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[8]

Bloodroot produces benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, primarily the toxin sanguinarine. The alkaloids are transported to and stored in the rhizome.

Sanguinarine kills animal cells by blocking the action of Na+/K+-ATPase transmembrane proteins. As a result, applying bloodroot to the skin may destroy tissue and lead to the formation of a large scab, called an eschar. Bloodroot and its extracts are thus considered escharotic. Although applying escharotic agents (including bloodroot) to the skin is sometimes suggested as a home treatment for skin cancer, these attempts can be severely disfiguring.[9] Salves derived from bloodroot cannot be relied on to remove an entire malignant tumor. Microscopic tumor deposits may remain after visible tumor tissue is burned away, and case reports have shown that in such instances tumor has recurred and/or metastasized.[10]

Internal use is not recommended.[11] An overdose of bloodroot extract can cause vomiting and loss of consciousness.[11]

Comparing the biosynthesis of morphine and sanguinarine, the final intermediate in common is (S)-reticuline.[12][13] A number of plants in Papaveraceae and Ranunculaceae, as well as plants in the genus Colchicum (family Colchicaceae) and genus Chondodendron (family Menispermaceae), also produce such benzylisoquinoline alkaloids. Plant geneticists have identified and sequenced genes which produce the enzymes required for this production. One enzyme involved is N-methylcoclaurine 3'-monooxygenase,[14] which produces (S)-3'-hydroxy-N-methylcoclaurine and mendococlaurine from (S)-N-methylcoclaurine.

Bloodroot was used historically by Native Americans for curative properties as an emetic, respiratory aid, and other treatments.[15]

In physician William Cook's 1869 work The Physiomedical Dispensatory is recorded a chapter on the uses and preparations of bloodroot,[16] which described tinctures and extractions, and also included at least the following cautionary report:

The U. S. Dispensatory says four persons lost their lives at Bellevue Hospital, New York, by drinking largely of blood root tincture in mistake for ardent spirits ...

Greater celandine (Chelidonium majus), a member of the poppy family, was used in colonial America as a wart remedy. Bloodroot has been similarly applied in the past. This may explain the multiple American and British definitions of "tetterwort" in 1913.

Bloodroot extracts have also been promoted by some supplement companies as a treatment or cure for cancer, but the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has listed some of these products among its "187 Fake Cancer 'Cures' Consumers Should Avoid".[17] Oral use of products containing bloodroot are strongly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia,[18] which is a premalignant lesion that may develop into oral cancer.

This plant has also been used in medical quackery, as was evidenced by the special product produced by Dr. John Henry Pinkard during the 1920s and 1930s. Some bottles of "Pinkard's Sanguinaria Compound", made from bloodroot or bloodwort, were seized by federal officials in 1931. "Analysis by this department of a sample of the article showed that it consisted essentially of extracts of plant drugs including sanguinaria, sugar, alcohol, and water. It was alleged in the information that the article was misbranded in that certain statements, designs, and devices regarding the therapeutic and curative effects of the article, appearing on the bottle label, falsely and fraudulently represented that it would be effective as a treatment, remedy, and cure for pneumonia, coughs, weak lungs, asthma, kidney, liver, bladder, or any stomach troubles, and effective as a great blood and nerve tonic." John Henry Pinkard plead guilty and was fined $25.00.[19]

Commercial uses of sanguinarine and bloodroot extract include dental hygiene products. The United States FDA has approved the inclusion of sanguinarine in toothpastes as an antibacterial or anti-plaque agent.[20][non-primary source needed][21][non-primary source needed][22][23] However, the use of sanguinaria in oral hygiene products is associated with the development of a premalignant oral leukoplakia,which may develop into oral cancer.[18][24] In 2003, the Colgate-Palmolive Company of Piscataway, New Jersey, United States commented by memorandum to the United States Food and Drug Administration that then-proposed rules for levels of sanguinarine in mouthwash and dental wash products were lower than necessary.[25] However, this conclusion is controversial.[26]

Some animal food additives sold and distributed in Europe contain sanguinarine and chelerythrine.

Bloodroot is a popular red natural dye used by Native American artists, especially among southeastern rivercane basketmakers.[27] A break in the surface of the plant, especially the roots, reveals a reddish sap which can be used as a dye.

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FAQs – Ocean Springs, MS – Gulf Coast Stem Cell …

Posted: June 23, 2018 at 12:45 am

Our Technology

Gulf Coast Stem Cell & Regenerative Medicine Center (GCSC&RMC) uses adipose-derived stem cells for deployment & clinical research. Early stem cell research has traditionally been associated with the controversial use of embryonic stem cells. The new focus is on non-embryonic adult mesenchymal stem cells which are found in a persons own blood, bone marrow, and fat. Most stem cell therapy centers in the world are currently using stem cells derived from bone marrow.

A recent technological breakthrough enables us to now use adipose (fat) derived stem cells. Autologous stem cells from a persons own fat are easy to harvest safely under local anesthesia and are abundant in quantities up to 2500 times those seen in bone marrow.

Clinical success and favorable outcomes appear to be related directly to the quantity of stem cells deployed. Once these adipose-derived stem cells are administered back into the patient, they have the potential to repair human tissue by forming new cells of mesenchymal origin, such as cartilage, bone, ligaments, tendons, nerve, fat, muscle, blood vessels, and certain internal organs. Stem cells ability to form cartilage and bone makes them potentially highly effective therapy for degenerative orthopedic conditions. Their ability to form new blood vessels and smooth muscle makes them potentially very useful in treating Peyronies disease and impotence. Stem cells are used extensively in Europe and Asia to treat these conditions.

We have anecdotal and experimental evidence that stem cell therapy is effective in healing and regeneration. Stem cells seek out damaged tissues in order to repair the body naturally. The literature and internet are full of successful testimonials but we are still awaiting definitive studies demonstrating the efficacy of stem cell therapy. Such data may take five or ten years to accumulate. In an effort to provide relief for patients suffering from certain degenerative diseases that have been resistant to common modalities of medical care, we are initiating pilot studies as experimental tests of therapy effectiveness with very high numbers of adipose-derived stem cells obtained from fat. Adipose fat is an abundant and reliable source of stem cells.

GCSC&RMCs cell harvesting and isolation techniques are based on technology from Korea. This new technological breakthrough allows patients to safely receive their own autologous stem cells in extremely large quantities. Our therapy and research are patient funded and we have endeavored successfully to make it affordable. All of our sterile procedures are non-invasive and done under local anesthesia. Patients who are looking for non-surgical alternatives to their degenerative disorders can participate in our trials by filling out our application to determine if they are candidates.GCSC&RMC is proud to be state of the art in the new field of Regenerative Medicine. RETURN TO TOP

We are currently in the process of setting up FDA approved protocols for stem cell banking in collaboration with a reputable cryo-technology company. This enables a person to receive autologous stem cells at any time in the future without having to undergo liposuction which may be inconvenient or contraindicated. Having your own stem cells available for medical immediate use is a valuable medical asset.

Provisions are nearly in place for this option and storage of your own stem cells obtained by liposuction at GCSC&RMC or from fat obtained from cosmetic procedures performed elsewhere should be possible in the near future. RETURN TO TOP

Adult (NonEmbryonic) Mesenchymal Stem Cells are undifferentiated cells that have the ability to replace dying cells and regenerate damaged tissue. These special cells seek out areas of injury, disease, and destruction where they are capable of regenerating healthy cells and enabling a persons natural healing processes to be accelerated. As we gain a deeper understanding of their medical function and apply this knowledge, we are realizing their enormous therapeutic potential to help the body heal itself. Adult stem cells have been used for a variety of medicaltherapies to repair and regenerate acute and chronically damaged tissues in humans and animals. The use of stem cells is not FDA approved for treating any specific disease in the United States at this time and their use is therefore investigational. Many reputable international centers have been using stem cell therapy to treat various chronic degenerative conditions as diverse as severe neurologic diseases, renal failure, erectile dysfunction, degenerative orthopedic problems, and even cardiac and pulmonary diseases to name a few. Adult stem cells appear to be particularly effective at repairing cartilage in degenerated joints. RETURN TO TOP

Regenerative Medicine is the process of creating living, functional tissues to repair or replace tissue or organ function lost due to damage, or congenital defects. This field holds the promise of regenerating damaged tissues and organs in the body by stimulating previously irreparable organs to heal themselves. (Wikipedia) RETURN TO TOP

Traditionally, we have used various medications and hormones to limit disease and help the body repair itself. For example, hormone replacement therapy has, in many cases, shown the ability to more optimally help the immune system and thus help us repair diseased or injured tissues. Genetic research is an evolving area where we will eventually learn and utilize more ways of specifically dealing with gene defects causing degenerative disease. Stem cell therapy is another rapidly evolving and exciting area that has already shown considerable promise in treating many degenerative conditions. RETURN TO TOP

A stem cell is basically any cell that can replicate and differentiate. This means the cell can not only multiply, it can turn into different types of tissues. There are different kinds of stem cells. Most people are familiar with or have heard the term embryonic stem cell. These are cells from the embryonic stage that have yet to differentiate as such, they can change into any body part at all. These are then called pluripotential cells. Because they are taken from unborn or unwanted embryos, there has been considerable controversy surrounding their use. Also, while they have been used in some areas of medicine particularly, outside the United States they have also been associated with occasional tumor (teratoma) formations. There is work being conducted by several companies to isolate particular lines of embryonic stem cells for future use.

Another kind of stem cell is the adult stem cell. This is a stem cell that already resides in ones body within different tissues. In recent times, much work has been done isolating bone-marrow derived stem cells. These are also known as mesenchymal stem cells because they come from the mesodermal section of your body. They can differentiate into bone and cartilage, and probably all other mesodermal elements, such as fat, connective tissue, blood vessels, muscle and nerve tissue. Bone marrow stem cells can be extracted and because they are low in numbers, they are usually cultured in order to multiply their numbers for future use. As it turns out, fat is also loaded with mesenchymal stem cells. In fact, it has hundreds if not thousands of times more stem cells compared to bone marrow. Today, we actually have tools that allow us to separate the stem cells from fat. Because most people have adequate fat supplies and the numbers of stem cells are so great, there is no need to culture the cells over a period of days and they can be used right away. RETURN TO TOP

These adult stem cells are known as progenitor cells. This means they remain dormant (do nothing) unless they witness some level of tissue injury. Its the tissue injury that turns them on. So, when a person has a degenerative type problem, the stem cells tend to go to that area of need and stimulate the healing process. Were still not sure if they simply change into the type of injured tissue needed for repair or if they send out signals that induce the repair by some other mechanism. Suffice it to say that there are multiple animal models and a plethora of human evidence that indicates these are significant reparative cells. RETURN TO TOP

This will depend on the type of degenerative condition you have. A specialist will evaluate you and discuss whether youre a potential candidate for stem cell therapy. If after youve been recommended for therapy, had an opportunity to understand the potential risks and benefits, and decided on your own that you would like to explore this avenue, then you can be considered for stem cell therapy. Of course, even though its a minimally invasive procedure, you will still need to be medically cleared for the procedure. RETURN TO TOP

NO. However, GCSC&RMCs procedures fall under the category of physicians practice of medicine, wherein the physician and patient are free to consider their chosen course for medical care. The FDA does have guidelines about therapy and manipulation of a patients own tissues. At GCSC&RMC we meet these guidelines by providing same day deployment with the patients own cells that undergo very minimal manipulation and are inserted during the same procedure. RETURN TO TOP

No. Only adult mesenchymal stem cells are used. These cells are capable of forming bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, ligaments, blood vessels, and certain organs. Embryonic stem cells are associated with ethical considerations and limitations. RETURN TO TOP

Patients suffer from many varieties of degenerative illnesses. There may be conditions associated with nearly all aspects of the body. Board-certified specialists are ideal to evaluate, recommend and/or treat, and subsequently, follow your progress. Together, through the GCSC&RMC, we work to coordinate and provide therapy mainly with your own stem cells, but also through other avenues of regenerative medicine. This could include hormone replacement therapy or other appropriate recommendations.

For example, if you have a knee problem, you would see GCSC&RMCs Board Certified orthopedic surgeon rather than a generic clinic director. Also, you might be recommended for evaluation for hormone replacement therapy or an exercise program should such be considered optimal. Nonetheless, we believe stem cell therapy to be the likely foundation for regenerative medicine.It should also be noted, that all therapies are currently in the investigational stage. While we recognize our patients are seeking improvement in their condition through stem cell therapy, each deployment is part of an ongoing investigation to establish optimal parameters for future therapies, to evaluate for effectiveness and for any adverse effects. It is essential that patients understand they are participating in these investigational (research) analyses. Once sufficient information is appropriately documented and statistically significant, then data (validated by an Institutional Review Board) may be presented to the FDA for consideration of making an actual claim. RETURN TO TOP

Urology, cosmetic surgery, ear, nose, & throat, orthopedics, internal medicine, and cardiology are represented. Plans are currently being made for a number of other specialties. GCSC&RMC is the first multi-specialty stem cell center in the United States. RETURN TO TOP

Many have been told that they require surgery or other risky procedures for their ailments and are looking for non-invasive options. Some have heard about the compelling testimonials about stem cells in the literature and on various websites. Many have read about the results of stem cell therapy in animal models and in humans. GCSC&RMC gives a choice to those informed patients who seek modern regenerative therapy but desire convenience, quality, and affordability. GCSC&RMC fills a need for those patients who have been told that they have to travel to different countries and pay as much as twenty to one hundred thousand dollars for stem cell therapy offshore. (See stem cell tourism). RETURN TO TOP

Stem cells are harvested and deployed during the same procedure. Our patients undergo a minimally-invasive liposuction type of harvesting procedure by a qualified surgeon in our facility in Ocean Springs, Mississippi. The harvesting procedure generally lasts a few minutes and can be done under local anesthesia. Cells are then processed and are ready for deployment within 90 minutes or less. RETURN TO TOP

Bone marrow sampling (a somewhat uncomfortable procedure) yields approximately 5,000 60,000 cells that are then cultured over several days to perhaps a few million cells prior to deployment (injection into the patient). Recent advances in stem cell science have made it possible to obtain high numbers of very excellent quality multi-potent (able to form numerous other tissues) cells from a persons own liposuction fat. GCSC&RMC uses technology acquired from Asia to process this fat to yield approximately five hundred thousand to one million stem cells per cc of fat, and therefore, it is possible to obtain as many as 10 to 40 million cells from a single procedure. These adipose-derived stem cells can form many different types of cells when deployed properly including bone, cartilage, tendon (connective tissue), muscle, blood vessels, nerve tissue and others. RETURN TO TOP

GCSC&RMC patients have their fat (usually abdominal) harvested in our special sterile facility under a local anesthetic. The fat removal procedure lasts approximately twenty minutes. Specially designed equipment is used to harvest the fat cells and less than 100cc of fat is required. Postoperative discomfort is minimal and there is minimal restriction on activity. RETURN TO TOP

Stem cells are harvested under sterile conditions using a special closed system technology so that the cells never come into contact with the environment throughout the entire process from removal to deployment. Sterile technique and antibiotics are also used to prevent infection. RETURN TO TOP

No. Only a persons own adult autologous cells are used. These are harvested from each individual and deployed back into their own body. There is no risk of contamination or risk of introduction of mammalian DNA. RETURN TO TOP

These facilities are obtaining stem cells from bone marrow or blood in relatively small quantities and they are then culturing (growing) the cells to create adequate quantities. Research seems to indicate that success of stem cell therapy is directly related to the quantity of cells injected. GCSC&RMC uses adipose derived stem cells that are abundant naturally at approximately 2,500 times levels found in bone marrow (the most common source of mesenchymal stem cells). GCSC&RMC uses technology that isolates adipose stem cells in vast numbers in a short time span so that prolonged culturing is unnecessary and cells can be deployed into a patient within 90 minutes of harvesting. RETURN TO TOP

GCSC&RMC is doing pioneer research for treating many diseases. All investigational data is being collected so that results will be published in peer review literature and ultimately used to promote the advancement of cellular based regenerative medicine. FDA regulations mandate that no advertising medical claims be made and that even website testimonials are prohibited. RETURN TO TOP

No. Many are confused by this because they have heard of cancer patients receiving stem cell transplants. These patients had ablative bone marrow therapy and need stem cells to re-populate their blood and marrow. This is different from the stem cells we deploy to treat noncancerous human diseases at GCSC&RMC. RETURN TO TOP

Adult mesenchymal stem cells are not known to cause cancer. Some patients have heard of stories of cancer caused by stem cells, but these are probably related to the use of embryonic cells (Not Adult Mesenchymal Cells). These embryonic tumors known as teratomas are rare but possible occurrences when embryonic cells are used. RETURN TO TOP

Stem cell therapy is thought to be safe and not affect dormant cancers. If someone has had cancer that was treated and responded sucessfully, there is know reason to withhold stem cell deployment. In most cases, stem cells should not be used in patients with known active cancer. RETURN TO TOP

We know of no documented cases personally or in the literature where serious harm has resulted. All of our patients will be entered into a database to follow and report any adverse reactions. This information is vital to the development of stem cell science. There have been a few reports of serious complications from overseas and these are being thoroughly evaluated by epidemiologists to ascertain the facts. The International Stem Cell Society registry has over 1,000 cases currently registered and only 2% were associated with any complications, none of which were considered serious adverse events. RETURN TO TOP

None. Our aim is to make cell based medicine available to patients who are interested and to provide ongoing research data under approved Institutional Review Board (IRB) validated studies. We will follow our stem cell therapy patients over their lifetimes. This will enable us to accumulate significant data about the various degenerative diseases we treat. Instead of providing simply anecdotal or testimonial information, our goal is to categorize the various conditions and follow the patients progress through various objective (e.g. x-ray evidence or video displays) and subjective (e.g. patient and/or doctor surveys) criteria. We are aware of a lot of stories about marked improvement of a variety of conditions, but we make no claims about the intended therapy. At some point, once adequate amounts of data are accumulated, it might be appropriate to submit the information to the FDA at which point an actual claim may be substantiated and recognized by the Agency. Still, these are your own cells and not medicines for sale. They are only being used in your own body. Most likely, no claim needs to be made; rather a statistical analysis of our findings would suffice to suggest whether therapy is truly and significantly effective. We also hope to submit our patients data to an approved International Registry (See ICMS Stem Cell Registry) further fostering large collections of data to help identify both positive and negative trends. RETURN TO TOP

Our adipose derived stem cell harvesting and isolation technique yields extremely high numbers of stem cells. In reviewing outcomes data, therapy cell numbers appear to correlate with therapy success. Our cells are actually in a type of soup called Stromal Vascular Fraction SVF which is stem cells bathed in a rich mixture of natural growth factors (Not the same as human growth factor hormone which is only one type of growth factor). Some types of orthopedic and urologic diseases appear to respond better to stem cells that are super enriched with growth factors created by administering Platelet Rich Plasma to the patient. Autologous Platelet Rich Plasma is derived from a patients own blood drawn at the time of deployment. At GCSC&RMC we do not add any foreign substances or medications to the stem cells. RETURN TO TOP

Depending on the type of therapy required, stem cells can be injected through veins, arteries, into spinal fluid, subcutaneously, or directly into joints or organs. All of these are considered minimally invasive methods of introducing the stem cells. Stem cells injected intravenously are known to seek out and find (see photo) areas of tissue damage and migrate to that location thus potentially providing regenerative healing. Intravenously injected stem cells have been shown to have the capability of crossing the blood-brain barrier to enter the central nervous system and they can be identified in the patients body many months after deployment. Note yellow arrow showing the stem cells concentrated in the patients hand where he had a Dupytrens contracture (Dupuytrens contracture is a hand deformity that causes the tissue beneath the surface of the hand to thicken and contract). RETURN TO TOP

Different conditions are treated in different ways and there are different degrees of success. If the goal is regeneration of joint cartilage, one may not see expected results until several months. Some patients may not experience significant improvement and others may see dramatic regeneration of damaged tissue or resolution of disease. Many of the disorders and problems that the physicians at GCSC&RMC are treating represent pioneering work and there is a lack of data. FDA regulations prevent GCSC&RMC from making any claims about expectations for success, however, if you are chosen for therapy, it will be explained that we believe stem cell therapy may be beneficial or in some cases that we are unsure and therapy would be considered investigational. RETURN TO TOP

Stem cell therapy relies on the bodys own regenerative healing to occur. The regenerative process may take time, particularly with orthopedic patients, who may not see results for several months. In some diseases, more immediate responses are possible. RETURN TO TOP

No. Only certain medical problems are currently being treated at GCSC&RMC. Check our list or fill out a candidate application form on the website. All patients need to be medically stable enough to have the stem cell deployment in our facility. There may be some exceptional conditions that may eventually be treated in hospitalized patients, but that remains for the future. Some patients may be declined due to the severity of their problem. Other patients may not have conditions appropriate to treat or may not be covered by our specialists or our protocols. A waiting list or outside referral (if we know of someone else treating such a problem) might be applicable in such cases. RETURN TO TOP

Yes. Patients with uncontrolled cancer are excluded. If you have an active infection anywhere in your body you must be treated first. Severely ill patients may require special consideration. Also, anyone with a bleeding disorder or who takes blood thinning medications requires special evaluation before consideration for stem cells. RETURN TO TOP

The specialist seeing you at GCSC&RMC will make a determination based on your history and exam, studies, and current research findings. Any complex cases may be reviewed by our ethics advisory committee. Occasionally, we may seek opinions from thought leaders around the world. RETURN TO TOP

No. Participation in any of our protocols is not mandatory and there are no incentives, financial or otherwise, to induce patients to enroll in our studies. However, GCSC&RMC is dedicated to clinical research for the development of stem cell science. GCSC&RMC is taking an active role in cutting edge clinical research in the new field of regenerative medicine. Research studies will be explained and privacy will be maintained. Formal future research studies will be regulated by an Institutional Review Board which is an authorized agency that promotes validity, transparency and protection of human study enrollees. RETURN TO TOP

At this time, we are not treating autism, spinal cord injuries, and some advanced diseases. See list of problems currently being studied at GCSC&RMC. RETURN TO TOP

Patients who are considered to be candidates based on information provided in the candidate application form will be invited for a consultation with one of our panel physicians. $250 is charged for this consultation which includes office evaluation (but may also include physicians evaluation of X-Rays, records, or telephonic consultations). Unfortunately, insurance generally will not cover the actual cost of stem cell therapy in most cases since stem cell therapy is still considered experimental. The cost varies depending on the disease state being treated and which type of stem cell deployment is required. RETURN TO TOP

Because of recent innovations in technology, GCSC&RMC is able to provide outpatient stem cell therapy at a fraction of the cost of that seen in many overseas clinics. The fee covers fat cell harvesting, cell preparation, and stem cell deployment which may include the use of advanced interventional radiology and fluoroscopy techniques. Financing is available through a credit vendor. RETURN TO TOP

Stem cells can be cryopreserved in the form of liposuction fat for prolonged periods of time. Currently, this service is outsourced to an outside provider known to have excellent quality control. Many patients have been inquiring about banking cells while they are still young since stem cell numbers drop naturally with each decade of life and some advocate obtaining and saving cells to be used later in life as needed. (see chart). RETURN TO TOP

Most patients, especially those with orthopedic conditions, require only one deployment. Certain types of degenerative conditions, particularly auto-immune disease, may respond best to a series of stem cell deployments. The number and necessity of any additional procedures would be decided on a case by case basis. Financial consideration is given in these instances. RETURN TO TOP

A good resource is the International Cellular Medicine Society (ICMS). Stem Cells 101

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FAQs - Ocean Springs, MS - Gulf Coast Stem Cell ...

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Our Team | Gulf Coast Stem Cell & Regenerative Medicine Center

Posted: June 22, 2018 at 12:51 am

In 2000, he settled on the Mississippi Gulf Coast where he operated extensively at several coastal hospitals, performing thoracic, cardiac and vascular (including endovascular and dialysis access) surgery. Over the years, he developed a special interest in renal dialysis access work and in venous and lymphatic disorders. In summer 2011, Dr. Barmada decided to dedicate more time to his expanding venous practice; in addition to developing an interest in aesthetics; then, interest in the use of stem cells for the investigational deployment in inoperable conditions he encountered quite frequently over decades, including vascular ischemic occlusions, severe COPD and heart conditions.

Dr. Barmadas prestigious awards and associations include membership of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons, Society for Vascular Ultrasound, the American Venous Forum and the American College of Phlebology, a fellow of the Royal Society of Medicine, London, England, a fellow of the British Boards in Cardiothoracic Surgery and previous membership of the editorial board of the Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants. Dr. Barmada possesses two active medical licenses in Mississippi and Louisiana, and he has two US patents.

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Our Team | Gulf Coast Stem Cell & Regenerative Medicine Center

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Cool Science Images 2017 – News – UW-Madison

Posted: August 3, 2017 at 8:47 am

Ten images and two videos by University of WisconsinMadison students, faculty and staff have been named winners of the 2017 Cool Science Image Contest.

A panel of eight experienced artists and scientists judged the scientific content and aesthetic and creative qualities of 131 images and videos entered in the 7th annual competition.

Two tiny globs of different kinds of fat mostly liquid oil on the left, mainly solid fat on the right are teased together until they combine into a droplet that retains some of the physical characteristics of both the oil and solid. This partial coalescence gives foods like ice cream and whipped topping their appealing texture and melting properties. Video by Abbey Thiel, graduate student, Hartel Lab, Food Science | Microscope

Hundreds of puffballs of the fungus Lycoperdon pyriforme cloud the air with spores during a rain shower. The puffball is the fungis reproductive structure, puffing out spores when bumped by something (like raindrops). The spores, distributed by the slightest breeze, can germinate to form new colonies of fungi feeding on decaying wood or other organic matter. Video by Cid Freitag, academic staff, DoIT Academic Technology | iPod Touch

Scientists are rightly proud of the images they produce, but most of them end up printed at postage stamp size in a scientific journal, says Steve Paddock, a contest judge, UWMadison scientist, and science education fellow with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. This was an especially diverse group of subjects, and a great opportunity for them to get the audience they deserve.

The 2017 winners include fauna from the backwaters of the Mississippi River and flora used as scaffolding to grow human tissue from stem cells, as well as a nebula that reminds stargazers of a running man and sparkling brain cells that reminded the contest judges of stars.

The images and videos were made using instruments ranging from smartphone cameras to telescopes to scanning electron microscopes, and each tells at least a piece of a story of discovery.

I was trained to collect the most aesthetically pleasing images possible, says Paddock. There are so many images out there that contain important scientific information, but are also interesting as art. They draw you in.

The Cool Science Image Contest is intended to recognize the technical and creative skills required to capture images or video that document science or nature. The contest is sponsored by Madisons Promega Corp., with additional support from DoIT Digital Publishing and Printing Services and the UWMadison Arts Institute.

Winning entries are shared widely on various UWMadison websites, and all entries are showcased in a slide show at the Wisconsin Science Festival and in concert with a fall exhibit of winners at the McPherson Eye Research Institutes Mandelbaum and Albert Family Vision Gallery.

UW-Madison 2017 Cool Science Image Contest winners are:

Sarah Brodnick, research specialist and lab manager in biomedical engineering, and Tim Korinek of Synergy Technologies for their scanning electron micrograph of a microscopic gold particle striking and melting a polymer surface.

Allison Cardiel, graduate student in chemistry, for her scanning electron micrograph of the flower-like, nanoscale structure of a copper crystal used as a catalyst in hydrogen fuel production.

Jayadevi Chandrashekhar, research specialist at the Waisman Center, and Kaylyn Freeman, undergraduate student researcher at Waisman, for their micrograph of neurons in the brain of a mouse.

Miranda Cullins, postdoc in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery, for her micrograph of the woven muscle fibers that give the human tongue its range of movement.

Gianluca Fontana, postdoc in orthopedics and rehabilitation, for his scanning electron micrograph of human connective tissue growing on a decellularized parsley stem.

Cid Freitag, DoIT Designing Learning Experiences Studio Program Manager, for her video of hundreds of puffball fungi releasing clouds of spores.

Celia Glime, undergraduate student majoring in art and biology, for her photo illustration of a range of colors produced in test tubes by various chemical reactions.

Kyle Karlen, student of veterinary medicine, for his thermal camera image of a Holstein calfs face taken to measure the pain response from a routine procedure in dairy cattle.

Natalia Lucero, undergraduate student majoring in communication arts and environmental studies, for her photograph of a tiny jumping spider alighted on the edge of a sheaf of paper.

Colin MacDiarmid, associate scientist in the Nutritional Sciences Department, for his photo shot through a telescope of a pair of nebulae in the sword of the constellation Orion.

Joseph McDonald, masters studentin public health, for his photograph of a Northern leopard frog hiding in the murky water of a marsh.

Abbey Thiel, graduate student in food science, for her video showing the partial mixture of different fats that give foods like ice cream and whipped toppings their appealing texture and melting properties.

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Cool Science Images 2017 - News - UW-Madison

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small carpenter bees, Ceratina spp. – UF/IFAS

Posted: November 27, 2016 at 8:43 pm

common name: small carpenter bees scientific name: Ceratina spp. (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apidae: Xylocopinae) Introduction - Synonymy and Taxanomy - Distribution - Identification - Biology - Economic Importance - Selected References Introduction (Back to Top)

In America, north of Mexico, the small carpenter bees, Ceratina, comprise one of two genera of the subfamily Xylocopinae. The other genus contains the large carpenter bees, Xylocopa. Of the 21 species of Ceratina in America north of Mexico, only two are known to occur in Florida: Ceratina cockerelli H.S. Smith, and Ceratina dupla Say.

Figure 1. Differences in wing venation between the small carpenter bees, Ceratina spp., and the large carpenter bees, Xylocopa spp. Drawings by Division of Plant Industry.

Mitchell (1962) described the subspecies Ceratina dupla floridanus from Florida, but Daly (1973) synonymized it simply as a more densely punctate, and brighter blue population of the typical eastern Ceratina dupla.

At various times, carpenter bees have been placed in the families Anthophoridae, Xylocopidae or Apidae. Hurd and Moure (1963) traced the taxonomic history of these bees, with the most recent placement within Apidae (Krombein 1967). This family is characterized, in part, by the jugal lobe of the hindwing being absent or shorter than the submedian cell and by the forewing having three submarginal cells.

Ceratina cockerelli is found throughout Florida and most of the southern coastal states from Texas to Georgia (Daly 1973). Specimens have not been reported from Alabama or Mississippi, but probably occur there. Ceratina dupla is found throughout Florida as well as most of the eastern United States (Daly 1973).

Within the family Apidae, carpenter bees are distinguished most easily by the triangular second submarginal cell, and by the lower margin of the eye almost in contact with the base of the mandible (i.e., the malar space is absent).

The easiest method of separating Ceratina from Xylocopa is by size: Ceratina are less than 8 mm in length whereas Xylocopa are 20 mm or larger. In addition, in Ceratina the second submarginal cell is about as high as it is wide basally, whereas in Xylocopa it is about half as high as it is wide basally.

Small carpenter bees are black, bluish green, or blue, and often have yellowish or whitish markings on the clypeus, pronotal lobes, and legs. The two Florida species of Ceratina may be separated as follows:

Figure 2. Small carpenter bee, Ceratina dupla Say, dorsal and side views. Photograph by Division of Plant Industry.

In general, members of this genus use their mandibles to excavate nests in the pith of broken or burned plant twigs and stems. Females overwinter as adults in partially or completely excavated stems. In the spring, this resting place (hibernaculum) is modified into a brood nest by further excavation. Rau (1928) reported several nests of Ceratina calcarata Robertson that ranged from 20 to 30 cm deep. Daly (1966) measured 126 nests of Ceratina dallatorreana Friese that ranged from 3 to 19 cm deep. When a desired depth is reached, the female collects pollen and nectar, places this mixture at the base of the burrow, lays an egg on the provision, and then caps off the cell with masticated plant material. Several cells are constructed end to end in each plant stem, the absolute number depending upon the depth to which the nest was excavated. Daly (1966) found a range of two to 12 cells (19 completed nests examined) for Ceratina dallatorreana.

Figure 3. Nest diagrams of the small carpenter bees, Ceratina spp. Left: overwintering nest (hibernaculum); Right: active brood nest with (A) bee larva and (B) provisions. Drawing by Division of Plant Industry.

The female works at a single stem until it is filled with cells, each of which contains provisions and an egg or larva, except for the last cell near the nest entrance. Here the bee rests and, according to Malyshev (1936) and Daly (1966), defends her nest from intruders. The female bee remains with the nest until her progeny emerge. Since the nest has been under construction for some time, the oldest progeny (at the base of the nest) mature and begin to gnaw their way out before the others above them are ready. This poses a special problem because the bees do not emerge laterally through the side of the stem, but vertically through all the other cells. Rau described this process thoroughly for Ceratina calcarata (1928).

Essentially the oldest bee chewed apart the cell cap above and packed it at the base of its own cell. If the bee above was not mature it was carefully moved down to rest on the new "floor." If the bee above was mature, the eldest passed it by and worked on the cell cap above, passing the pithy material to the younger bee or bees beneath. These bees packed the material at the base of the nest, moving and adjusting any remaining pupae. Thus the mature bees at the base of the nest gained freedom by "... a process of displacement, gradually shifting the material behind them as they make their way to the top" (Rau 1928). In the process observed by Rau, the eldest bees took eight days to make their way to the entrance; several days later, all the bees emerged.

Special biological references to the Ceratina occurring in Florida are scarce. Extensive flower visitation records were given by Mitchell (1962) and Daly (1973). The only biological record forCeratina cockerelli was given by Daly (1973) who cited Sage (in litt.) as reporting nests "... in dead, cut stems of sea-oats, Uniola paniculata L., on the beach of Mustang Island, Texas." The more important papers, though wholly inadequate, are Ashmead (1894), Comstock and Comstock (1895), and Graenicher (1905).

Unlike their larger relatives in the genus Xylocopa, the small carpenter bees in the genus Ceratina are not known to be of economic importance.

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