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Category Archives: Wisconsin Stem Cells

Researchers May Have Found The Gene Responsible For Cellular Aging – Anti Aging News

Posted: December 4, 2020 at 11:54 am

Scientists from the University of Wisconsin Madison believe that they have solved an anti-aging mystery by identifying a gene that is responsible for cellular aging.

Research indicates that cellular reprogramming may be able to reverse the aging that leads to the decline in the activities and functions of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells, but scientists have not been able to figure out which molecular mechanisms are responsible for this reversal.

A study recently published in STEM CELLS may have solved this mystery, enhanced the knowledge of MSC aging and associated disease, and provided insight into developing pharmacological strategies designed to reduce or reverse the aging process.

For this study cellular reprogramming approaches were utilized to establish a genetically identical young and old cell model. While agreeing with previous findings in MSC rejuvenation by cellular reprogramming, our study goes further to provide insight into how reprogrammed MSCs are regulated molecularly to ameliorate the cellular hallmarks of aging, explained lead investigator, Wan-Ju Li, Ph.D., a faculty member in the Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation and the Department of Biomedical Engineering.

Cell analysis was conducted to determine if there were any changes in global gene expression resulting from the reprogramming; expression of the protein GATA6 that plays important roles in the gut, lung, and heart development was found to be repressed in the reprogrammed cells as compared to the control cells. Repression of GATA6 led to increased activity of the sonic hedgehog (SHH) protein that is essential to embryonic development as well as the expression levels of FOXp1 proteins required for proper development of the brain, heart and lung.

Thus, we identified the GATA6/SHH/FOXP1 pathway as a key mechanism that regulates MSC aging and rejuvenation, Dr. Li said.

Identification of the GATA6/SHH/FOXP1 pathway in controlling the aging of MSCs is a very important accomplishment. Said Dr. Jan Nolta, Editor-in-Chief of STEM CELLS. Premature aging can thwart the ability to expand these promising cells while maintaining function for clinical use, and enhanced knowledge about the pathways that control differentiation and senescence is highly valuable.

In order to determine which of the 4 Yamanaka transcription factors used to reprogram genes to derive iPSCs were involved in repressing GATA6 in the iPSCs, the expression of GATA6 was analyzed in response to the knockdown of each factor. The analysis revealed that only OCT$ and KLF4 were able to regulate GATA6 activity, this finding is consistent with that of several; previous studies.

Overall, we were able to demonstrate that SF-MSCs undergo substantial changes in properties and functions as a result of cellular reprogramming. These changes in iPSC-MSCs collectively indicate amelioration of cell aging. Most significantly, we were able to identify the GATA6/SHH/FOXP1 signalling pathway as an underlying mechanism that controls cell aging-related activities, Dr. Li said.

We believe our findings will help improve the understanding of MSC aging and its significance in regenerative medicine, he concluded.

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Osteoporosis treatments could be on the way after scientists identify aging gene – iNews

Posted: at 11:54 am

Hopes for new treatments for osteoporosis and cartilage degeneration have been raised after scientists identified a gene that plays a key role in the ageing of bone, tendon, ligament and cartilage.

The researchers hope that they can use their findings to slow down treat age-related diseases connected to the skeletal system by creating treatments that slow down the ageing process behind them.

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Our findings are novel and significant in finding a critical answer to how skeletal tissues lose their capability to maintain their properties and functions when we age, said Wan-Ju Li, of the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

We can also develop new pharmacological therapies to treat age-associated diseases based on our findings [although] it will take a few years before we can see the application happens, he said.

The study is published in the journal Stem Cells. The journals editor-in-chief, Jan Nolta, of the University of California at Davis, said the discovery is a very important accomplishment.

Researchers said it is possible that the same mechanism that has been identified for the skeletal system may also be present in neural stem cells and cardic stem cells, where it may play a role in causing diseases associated with those areas of the body.

We dont know if the molecule and mechanism we have identified in the paper also play the same role in other stem cells, such as neural stem cells and cardiac stem cells, in causing Parkinsons disease and heart diseases, respectively, since we havent tested it with these cells, Dr Lin said.

But I am sure that other scientists in the fields of aging and brain and heart will follow our study to answer these questions in the future, Dr Lin said.

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Osteoporosis treatments could be on the way after scientists identify aging gene - iNews

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Stem Cell Assay Market In-Depth Analysis and Forecast 2017-2025 – Khabar South Asia

Posted: at 11:54 am

Stem Cell Assay Market: Snapshot

Stem cell assay refers to the procedure of measuring the potency of antineoplastic drugs, on the basis of their capability of retarding the growth of human tumor cells. The assay consists of qualitative or quantitative analysis or testing of affected tissues andtumors, wherein their toxicity, impurity, and other aspects are studied.

Get Exclusive PDF Sample Copy Of This Report:https://www.tmrresearch.com/sample/sample?flag=B&rep_id=40

With the growing number of successfulstem cell therapytreatment cases, the global market for stem cell assays will gain substantial momentum. A number of research and development projects are lending a hand to the growth of the market. For instance, the University of Washingtons Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine (ISCRM) has attempted to manipulate stem cells to heal eye, kidney, and heart injuries. A number of diseases such as Alzheimers, spinal cord injury, Parkinsons, diabetes, stroke, retinal disease, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and neurological diseases can be successfully treated via stem cell therapy. Therefore, stem cell assays will exhibit growing demand.

Another key development in the stem cell assay market is the development of innovative stem cell therapies. In April 2017, for instance, the first participant in an innovative clinical trial at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health was successfully treated with stem cell therapy. CardiAMP, the investigational therapy, has been designed to direct a large dose of the patients own bone-marrow cells to the point of cardiac injury, stimulating the natural healing response of the body.

Newer areas of application in medicine are being explored constantly. Consequently, stem cell assays are likely to play a key role in the formulation of treatments of a number of diseases.

Global Stem Cell Assay Market: Overview

The increasing investment in research and development of novel therapeutics owing to the rising incidence of chronic diseases has led to immense growth in the global stem cell assay market. In the next couple of years, the market is expected to spawn into a multi-billion dollar industry as healthcare sector and governments around the world increase their research spending.

The report analyzes the prevalent opportunities for the markets growth and those that companies should capitalize in the near future to strengthen their position in the market. It presents insights into the growth drivers and lists down the major restraints. Additionally, the report gauges the effect of Porters five forces on the overall stem cell assay market.

Buy This Report @https://www.tmrresearch.com/checkout?rep_id=40<ype=S

Global Stem Cell Assay Market: Key Market Segments

For the purpose of the study, the report segments the global stem cell assay market based on various parameters. For instance, in terms of assay type, the market can be segmented into isolation and purification, viability, cell identification, differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and function. By kit, the market can be bifurcated into human embryonic stem cell kits and adult stem cell kits. Based on instruments, flow cytometer, cell imaging systems, automated cell counter, and micro electrode arrays could be the key market segments.

In terms of application, the market can be segmented into drug discovery and development, clinical research, and regenerative medicine and therapy. The growth witnessed across the aforementioned application segments will be influenced by the increasing incidence of chronic ailments which will translate into the rising demand for regenerative medicines. Finally, based on end users, research institutes and industry research constitute the key market segments.

The report includes a detailed assessment of the various factors influencing the markets expansion across its key segments. The ones holding the most lucrative prospects are analyzed, and the factors restraining its trajectory across key segments are also discussed at length.

Global Stem Cell Assay Market: Regional Analysis

Regionally, the market is expected to witness heightened demand in the developed countries across Europe and North America. The increasing incidence of chronic ailments and the subsequently expanding patient population are the chief drivers of the stem cell assay market in North America. Besides this, the market is also expected to witness lucrative opportunities in Asia Pacific and Rest of the World.

Global Stem Cell Assay Market: Vendor Landscape

A major inclusion in the report is the detailed assessment of the markets vendor landscape. For the purpose of the study the report therefore profiles some of the leading players having influence on the overall market dynamics. It also conducts SWOT analysis to study the strengths and weaknesses of the companies profiled and identify threats and opportunities that these enterprises are forecast to witness over the course of the reports forecast period.

Some of the most prominent enterprises operating in the global stem cell assay market are Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc (U.S.), Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. (U.S.), GE Healthcare (U.K.), Hemogenix Inc. (U.S.), Promega Corporation (U.S.), Bio-Techne Corporation (U.S.), Merck KGaA (Germany), STEMCELL Technologies Inc. (CA), Cell Biolabs, Inc. (U.S.), and Cellular Dynamics International, Inc. (U.S.).

To know more about the table of contents, you can click @https://www.tmrresearch.com/sample/sample?flag=T&rep_id=40

About Us:

TMR Research is a premier provider of customized market research and consulting services to business entities keen on succeeding in todays supercharged economic climate. Armed with an experienced, dedicated, and dynamic team of analysts, we are redefining the way our clients conduct business by providing them with authoritative and trusted research studies in tune with the latest methodologies and market trends.

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Stem Cell Assay Market In-Depth Analysis and Forecast 2017-2025 - Khabar South Asia

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Stem Cell Assay Market In-Depth Analysis and Forecast 2017-2025 – Royal Sutton News

Posted: October 29, 2020 at 2:57 pm

Stem Cell Assay Market: Snapshot

Stem cell assay refers to the procedure of measuring the potency of antineoplastic drugs, on the basis of their capability of retarding the growth of human tumor cells. The assay consists of qualitative or quantitative analysis or testing of affected tissues andtumors, wherein their toxicity, impurity, and other aspects are studied.

Get Exclusive PDF Sample Copy Of This Report:https://www.tmrresearch.com/sample/sample?flag=B&rep_id=40

With the growing number of successfulstem cell therapytreatment cases, the global market for stem cell assays will gain substantial momentum. A number of research and development projects are lending a hand to the growth of the market. For instance, the University of Washingtons Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine (ISCRM) has attempted to manipulate stem cells to heal eye, kidney, and heart injuries. A number of diseases such as Alzheimers, spinal cord injury, Parkinsons, diabetes, stroke, retinal disease, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and neurological diseases can be successfully treated via stem cell therapy. Therefore, stem cell assays will exhibit growing demand.

Another key development in the stem cell assay market is the development of innovative stem cell therapies. In April 2017, for instance, the first participant in an innovative clinical trial at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health was successfully treated with stem cell therapy. CardiAMP, the investigational therapy, has been designed to direct a large dose of the patients own bone-marrow cells to the point of cardiac injury, stimulating the natural healing response of the body.

Newer areas of application in medicine are being explored constantly. Consequently, stem cell assays are likely to play a key role in the formulation of treatments of a number of diseases.

Global Stem Cell Assay Market: Overview

The increasing investment in research and development of novel therapeutics owing to the rising incidence of chronic diseases has led to immense growth in the global stem cell assay market. In the next couple of years, the market is expected to spawn into a multi-billion dollar industry as healthcare sector and governments around the world increase their research spending.

The report analyzes the prevalent opportunities for the markets growth and those that companies should capitalize in the near future to strengthen their position in the market. It presents insights into the growth drivers and lists down the major restraints. Additionally, the report gauges the effect of Porters five forces on the overall stem cell assay market.

Buy This Report @https://www.tmrresearch.com/checkout?rep_id=40<ype=S

Global Stem Cell Assay Market: Key Market Segments

For the purpose of the study, the report segments the global stem cell assay market based on various parameters. For instance, in terms of assay type, the market can be segmented into isolation and purification, viability, cell identification, differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and function. By kit, the market can be bifurcated into human embryonic stem cell kits and adult stem cell kits. Based on instruments, flow cytometer, cell imaging systems, automated cell counter, and micro electrode arrays could be the key market segments.

In terms of application, the market can be segmented into drug discovery and development, clinical research, and regenerative medicine and therapy. The growth witnessed across the aforementioned application segments will be influenced by the increasing incidence of chronic ailments which will translate into the rising demand for regenerative medicines. Finally, based on end users, research institutes and industry research constitute the key market segments.

The report includes a detailed assessment of the various factors influencing the markets expansion across its key segments. The ones holding the most lucrative prospects are analyzed, and the factors restraining its trajectory across key segments are also discussed at length.

Global Stem Cell Assay Market: Regional Analysis

Regionally, the market is expected to witness heightened demand in the developed countries across Europe and North America. The increasing incidence of chronic ailments and the subsequently expanding patient population are the chief drivers of the stem cell assay market in North America. Besides this, the market is also expected to witness lucrative opportunities in Asia Pacific and Rest of the World.

Global Stem Cell Assay Market: Vendor Landscape

A major inclusion in the report is the detailed assessment of the markets vendor landscape. For the purpose of the study the report therefore profiles some of the leading players having influence on the overall market dynamics. It also conducts SWOT analysis to study the strengths and weaknesses of the companies profiled and identify threats and opportunities that these enterprises are forecast to witness over the course of the reports forecast period.

Some of the most prominent enterprises operating in the global stem cell assay market are Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc (U.S.), Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. (U.S.), GE Healthcare (U.K.), Hemogenix Inc. (U.S.), Promega Corporation (U.S.), Bio-Techne Corporation (U.S.), Merck KGaA (Germany), STEMCELL Technologies Inc. (CA), Cell Biolabs, Inc. (U.S.), and Cellular Dynamics International, Inc. (U.S.).

To know more about the table of contents, you can click @https://www.tmrresearch.com/sample/sample?flag=T&rep_id=40

About Us:

TMR Research is a premier provider of customized market research and consulting services to business entities keen on succeeding in todays supercharged economic climate. Armed with an experienced, dedicated, and dynamic team of analysts, we are redefining the way our clients conduct business by providing them with authoritative and trusted research studies in tune with the latest methodologies and market trends.

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Stem Cell Assay Market In-Depth Analysis and Forecast 2017-2025 - Royal Sutton News

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Stem Cell Assay Market to Witness Growth Acceleration During 2017-2025 – Cole of Duty

Posted: June 4, 2020 at 9:24 am

Stem Cell Assay Market: Snapshot

Stem cell assay refers to the procedure of measuring the potency of antineoplastic drugs, on the basis of their capability of retarding the growth of human tumor cells. The assay consists of qualitative or quantitative analysis or testing of affected tissues andtumors, wherein their toxicity, impurity, and other aspects are studied.

Get Exclusive PDF Sample Copy Of This Report:https://www.tmrresearch.com/sample/sample?flag=B&rep_id=40

With the growing number of successfulstem cell therapytreatment cases, the global market for stem cell assays will gain substantial momentum. A number of research and development projects are lending a hand to the growth of the market. For instance, the University of Washingtons Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine (ISCRM) has attempted to manipulate stem cells to heal eye, kidney, and heart injuries. A number of diseases such as Alzheimers, spinal cord injury, Parkinsons, diabetes, stroke, retinal disease, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and neurological diseases can be successfully treated via stem cell therapy. Therefore, stem cell assays will exhibit growing demand.

Another key development in the stem cell assay market is the development of innovative stem cell therapies. In April 2017, for instance, the first participant in an innovative clinical trial at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health was successfully treated with stem cell therapy. CardiAMP, the investigational therapy, has been designed to direct a large dose of the patients own bone-marrow cells to the point of cardiac injury, stimulating the natural healing response of the body.

Newer areas of application in medicine are being explored constantly. Consequently, stem cell assays are likely to play a key role in the formulation of treatments of a number of diseases.

Global Stem Cell Assay Market: Overview

The increasing investment in research and development of novel therapeutics owing to the rising incidence of chronic diseases has led to immense growth in the global stem cell assay market. In the next couple of years, the market is expected to spawn into a multi-billion dollar industry as healthcare sector and governments around the world increase their research spending.

The report analyzes the prevalent opportunities for the markets growth and those that companies should capitalize in the near future to strengthen their position in the market. It presents insights into the growth drivers and lists down the major restraints. Additionally, the report gauges the effect of Porters five forces on the overall stem cell assay market.

Buy This Report @https://www.tmrresearch.com/checkout?rep_id=40<ype=S

Global Stem Cell Assay Market: Key Market Segments

For the purpose of the study, the report segments the global stem cell assay market based on various parameters. For instance, in terms of assay type, the market can be segmented into isolation and purification, viability, cell identification, differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and function. By kit, the market can be bifurcated into human embryonic stem cell kits and adult stem cell kits. Based on instruments, flow cytometer, cell imaging systems, automated cell counter, and micro electrode arrays could be the key market segments.

In terms of application, the market can be segmented into drug discovery and development, clinical research, and regenerative medicine and therapy. The growth witnessed across the aforementioned application segments will be influenced by the increasing incidence of chronic ailments which will translate into the rising demand for regenerative medicines. Finally, based on end users, research institutes and industry research constitute the key market segments.

The report includes a detailed assessment of the various factors influencing the markets expansion across its key segments. The ones holding the most lucrative prospects are analyzed, and the factors restraining its trajectory across key segments are also discussed at length.

Global Stem Cell Assay Market: Regional Analysis

Regionally, the market is expected to witness heightened demand in the developed countries across Europe and North America. The increasing incidence of chronic ailments and the subsequently expanding patient population are the chief drivers of the stem cell assay market in North America. Besides this, the market is also expected to witness lucrative opportunities in Asia Pacific and Rest of the World.

Global Stem Cell Assay Market: Vendor Landscape

A major inclusion in the report is the detailed assessment of the markets vendor landscape. For the purpose of the study the report therefore profiles some of the leading players having influence on the overall market dynamics. It also conducts SWOT analysis to study the strengths and weaknesses of the companies profiled and identify threats and opportunities that these enterprises are forecast to witness over the course of the reports forecast period.

Some of the most prominent enterprises operating in the global stem cell assay market are Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc (U.S.), Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. (U.S.), GE Healthcare (U.K.), Hemogenix Inc. (U.S.), Promega Corporation (U.S.), Bio-Techne Corporation (U.S.), Merck KGaA (Germany), STEMCELL Technologies Inc. (CA), Cell Biolabs, Inc. (U.S.), and Cellular Dynamics International, Inc. (U.S.).

To know more about the table of contents, you can click @https://www.tmrresearch.com/sample/sample?flag=T&rep_id=40

About Us:

TMR Research is a premier provider of customized market research and consulting services to business entities keen on succeeding in todays supercharged economic climate. Armed with an experienced, dedicated, and dynamic team of analysts, we are redefining the way our clients conduct business by providing them with authoritative and trusted research studies in tune with the latest methodologies and market trends.

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Stem Cell Assay Market to Witness Growth Acceleration During 2017-2025 - Cole of Duty

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Clinical prospects for stem cells begin to emerge

Posted: April 28, 2020 at 6:49 pm

Twenty years after the University of WisconsinMadisons James Thomson derived the first human embryonic stem cell lines (ESC), his revolutionary discovery is just beginning to emerge on the clinical landscape.

To date, a handful of clinical trials of embryonic stem cell-derived therapies have been completed, withabout16 more now underway worldwide.

From a patients perspective, 20 years may seem like a frustratingly long time for an important discovery to get from bench to bedside. For physicians and researchers, however, the strong desire to give hope to patients is balanced with realism about the path forward. Responsible science is almost always a slow, grueling process. But experts in the field of stem cell and regenerative medicine feel more optimistic than ever, due to a critical mass of small successes.

Perhaps no field of medicine has as much reason to be hopeful about stem cell therapy as ophthalmology. Of the human trials underway, all but two involve therapies for eye disorders. David Gamm, MD, PhD, associate professor of ophthalmology and visual sciences at the UW School of Medicine and Public Health, attributes this to three factors: practicality, safety and cost.

Most new stem cell therapies require new surgical techniques and devices, but not always for the eye, Gamm explains. That reduces the cost of development and quickens the pace of getting new therapies through the FDA and into patients.

But Gamm, who also directs UWMadisons McPherson Eye Research Institute, understands patients frustrations. He likens the process of developing stem cell therapies to the first attempts at human flight.

If the Wright brothers claimed they could build a plane that would fly across the Atlantic, they would have been laughed at, Gamm says. What they were really trying to do was glide off a hill safely, with the hope of greater things to come. And thats where this field is right now.

Most of the advances in the field to date have involved the development of human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Theretinal pigment epithelium is a single layer of cells that regulates the transport of nutrients and waste products to and from the retina and is considered to be the part of the eye where macular degeneration begins. In 2012, 18 adults with severe eye disease received transplants created from human embryonic stem cells and continue to have no apparent complications.

Thirteen of those patients had an increase in pigmentation, suggesting that the transplanted cells were still alive. The results of the study, reported by researchers at Advanced Cell Technology in Massachusetts, provided the first evidence of the medium- to long-term safety and graft survival, and possible biological activity of pluripotent stem cells in individuals with any disease.

Gamm says the numerous stem cell experts at UWMadison work together, often across disparate disciplines, from cell biology to engineering to ethics.

This is where Jamie Thomson and UW have led the way. We have a very strong sense of integrity and ethics here, and because we have this multidisciplinary approach to stem cells we also have a sense of realism, Gamm says. So, while we may not have flown that far yet, what we have done has allowed us to land safely. And that has allowed us to dust ourselves off, re-evaluate, climb back up that hill and try again.

Gamms own company, Opsis Therapeutics, is working with Cellular Dynamics International, founded by Thomson and now owned by Fujifilm, toward clinical trials for retinitis pigmentosa, a group of genetic diseases that lead to blindness at an early age. Currently, there are no treatments for these debilitating diseases.

Clinical trials for other diseases, including Parkinsons, diabetes, spinal cord injury and heart disease, will likely use induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), adult cells genetically reprogrammed to behave like embryonic stem cells.

CardiologistTim Kamp, MD, PhD, a UWMadison professor of medicine and director of theUW Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Center, shares Gamms cautious optimism.

Stem cell biology is a dynamic landscape; things are constantly evolving, Kamp says. With every new legitimate effort, though, itll get easier for the rest of us to get approval from the FDA and our therapies into patients.

Kamp cites Geron, the first company to get a stem cell trial approved by the FDA, as an example of how each success helps accelerate progress.

Gerons final FDA application was more than 20,000 pages, Kamp explains. It took them many years and millions of dollars, but that initial process educated the FDA and provided answers to some previously unanswered questions. And that was great news for the rest of us.

Kamp is conducting preclinical work with colleagues from Duke University and the University of Alabama on a patch made of contracting heart muscle derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. He and his collaborators hope one day these cells can be used to treat patients who lose heart muscle after a heart attack.

Another of Kamps collaborators, French researcher Philippe Menasch, recently completed a phase 1 trial that transplanted embryonic stem cell-derived cardiac progenitor cells into patients with severe heart failure. That therapy seems to be safe, but its too early to tell how effective it was in re-muscularizing damaged parts of the heart.

Diabetes is another cell-based disease in the crosshairs of UW School of Medicine and Public Health researchers. Earlier this year, results of the first human trial of a stem cell-derived beta cell replacement therapy were published. Professor of Surgery Jon Odorico, MD, who organized the conference at which the results of the trial were presented, says while the findings were not a home run, the trial helped blaze an important trail through the FDA. Conducted by the company Viacyte, the trial was the first involving stem cells and a macroencapsulation device designed to protect the transplanted cells from a patients immune system.

A second trial is underway in the same patient population (adult patients with type 1 diabetes and hypoglycemia unawareness) and a handful of others are planned, including one through Odoricos own company Regenerative Medical Solutions. He hopes to have a product in clinical trials within the next few years.

There is now a critical mass of experts involved in this field and things are moving a lot faster, with more money and more industry involvement, Odorico says. Wisconsin has played a leading role in getting the field to this point and we are poised to take an even more prominent role, both nationally and internationally.

As for Gamm and his patients, the conversation has begun to shift from one of resignation to one that allows for guarded optimism. He recalls a time when there wasnt much he could offer patients, and while there are still no approved and proven stem cell therapies on the market, his message in the clinic has changed dramatically:

Its great to be able to tell my patients that they are not forgotten, Gamm says. I can finally tell them that the hope is real.

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Clinical prospects for stem cells begin to emerge

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Answering your sweet onion question and the science of why onions make you cry – Green Bay Press Gazette

Posted: at 6:49 pm

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A reader left a voicemail asking: "Where can I get some good sweet onions that are not bitter ... like ones like you get at McDonald's."

The short answer to finding onions short on bitterness is to buysweet onion varieties with names like Vidalia and Walla Walla.

As far as finding McDonald's onions at the local grocery storewell, you don't become a global restaurant powerhouse by broadcasting trade secrets.However, there are plenty of online posts on how to replicate McDonald's onions at home by hydratingminced onions.

I tried a method that callsfor 1 tablespoon of minced onions mixed with an cup of water mixed in a bowl. Microwavethe soaked onion bits for 30 seconds and let sit for 15 minutes.

It worked. The onions were sweet and plumped up but no larger than the minced onions on McDonald's burgers.

Hydrating dried minced onions creates tiny pieces that add onion flavor with minimal bitterness.(Photo: Daniel Higgins/USA TODAY NETWORK-Wisconsin)

Still, there's no need to reconstitute dried onions to satisfy your sweet onion tooth. Sweet onions are available nearly year-round in Wisconsin.

University of Wisconsinhorticulture professor Irwin Goldman wrote in an email response to my onion inquiries that most sweet onions are grown in the southern United States, Mexico, and both Central and South America. A smaller amount are grown in the Pacific Northwest.

When it comes to onions, Goldman has many layers of knowledge. Since joining the UW faculty in 1992 he's headed up the Goldman Lab that focuses on research, breeding and genetics of table beets, carrotsand onions.

Goldman explains the science of why onions make us cry and the varying bitterness as follows:

Before being cut, compartments in the onion's cells isolate a specific enzymefrom a sulfur-based substrate a substrate is a substance acted upon by an enzyme.

When the onion is cut,the cells are ruptured,allowing the enzyme and substrate to combine and produce propanethial sulfoxidethatacts a little like sulfuric acid on the nerve cell membrane of the eye and causes tearing.

The substrate concentration levels vary based on the onion variety and where and how the onion is grown. Higher substrateconcentrations and a more activeenzyme can lead to larger amounts of propanethial sulfoxide.

Variety, growing conditions and how long onions have been stored all impact their flavor.(Photo: Daniel Higgins/USA TODAY NETWORK-Wisconsin)

Onions grown in soil with lower levels of sulfur produce substrates with lower sulfur concentrations and therefore result in a milder flavor. Soil with lower levels of sulfur is more widely found in states like Georgia, Floridaand Texas. This is why sweeter, milder onions typically come from the southern states, whereas stronger flavored onions come from northern regions.

Stored onion bulbs generally increase in pungency up to about 90 days after harvest,and some continue to increase up to 120 days. There are a few that get milder with storage, but most onions simply lose water and further concentrate the substrate, which in turn makes the onion a bit more pungent with time. Also, the onion bulb goes dormantafter harvest, but its dormancy is broken after a few months. Onions that are a few months old may be producing green sprouts because their dormancy has been broken and the sulfur compounds in the substrate are being mobilized into the new leaves.

The greatest pungency of the onion is found in the tissues at the base of the bulb. Cutting through that part of a bulb releases the most pungency and would make you tear up faster than if you kept the basal portion intact and cut other parts of the onion.(Photo: Daniel Higgins/USA TODAY NETWORK-Wisconsin)

The greatest pungency of the onion is found in the tissues at the base of the bulb, near where the stem is located. If you were holding an onion in the palm of your hand with the roots at the bottom, the base would be the centimeter or so of tissue closest to your palm. Disrupting this part of a bulb releases the most pungency and would make you tear up faster than if you kept the basal portion or the onion bulb intact and cut other parts.

My thanks to professor Irwin Goldman for answering our onion questions. If you have a food question, send it my way via email or leave a voicemail message. I can't promise every answer will come from an expert of Goldman's stature, but I will get your questions answered.

More: Higgins Eats ingestigative report: These five frozen pizzas have surprisingly distinct flavor profiles

More: Spruce up spaghetti night with sausage and green pepper version | No Budget Cooking Series

More: Kits from Wisconsin restaurants pull double duty as meal solutions and family activity

Contact Daniel at (920) 996-7214or dphiggin@gannett.com. Follow himon Twitter and Instagram at @HigginsEats.

Our subscribers make this coverage possible. Subscribe to a USA TODAY NETWORK-Wisconsin site today with one of our special offers and support local journalism.

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Answering your sweet onion question and the science of why onions make you cry - Green Bay Press Gazette

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Cells carrying Parkinson’s mutation could lead to new model for studying disease – University of Wisconsin-Madison

Posted: March 4, 2020 at 10:45 pm

Parkinsons disease researchers have used gene-editing tools to introduce the disorders most common genetic mutation into marmoset monkey stem cells and to successfully tamp down cellular chemistry that often goes awry in Parkinsons patients.

The edited cells are a step toward studying the degenerative neurological disorder in a primate model, which has proven elusive. Parkinsons, which affects more than 10 million people worldwide, progressively degrades the nervous system, causing characteristic tremors, dangerous loss of muscle control, cardiac and gastrointestinal dysfunction and other issues.

Marina Emborg

We know now how to insert a single mutation, a point mutation, into the marmoset stem cell, says Marina Emborg, professor of medical physics and leader of University of WisconsinMadison scientists who published their findings Feb. 26 in the journal Scientific Reports. This is an exquisite model of Parkinsons. For testing therapies, this is the perfect platform.

The researchers used a version of the gene-editing technology CRISPR to change a single nucleotide one molecule among more than 2.8 billion pairs of them found in a common marmosets DNA in the cells genetic code and give them a mutation called G2019S.

In human Parkinsons patients, the mutation causes abnormal over-activity of an enzyme, a kinase called LRRK2, involved in a cells metabolism. Other gene-editing studies have employed methods in which the cells produced both normal and mutated enzymes at the same time. The new study is the first to result in cells that make only enzymes with the G2019S mutation, which makes it easier to study what role this mutation plays in the disease.

The metabolism inside our stem cells with the mutation was not as efficient as a normal cell, just as we see in Parkinsons, says Emborg, whose work is supported by the National Institutes of Health. Our cells had a shorter life in a dish. And when they were exposed to oxidative stress, they were less resilient to that.

The mutated cells shared another shortcoming of Parkinsons: lackluster connections to other cells. Stem cells are an especially powerful research tool because they can develop into many different types of cells found throughout the body. When the researchers spurred their mutated stem cells to differentiate into neurons, they developed fewer branches to connect and communicate with neighboring neurons.

We can see the impact of these mutations on the cells in the dish, and that gives us a glimpse of what we could see if we used the same genetic principles to introduce the mutation into a marmoset, says Jenna Kropp Schmidt, a Wisconsin National Primate Research Center scientist and co-author of the study. A precisely genetically-modified monkey would allow us to monitor disease progression and test new therapeutics to affect the course of the disease.

The concept has applications in research beyond Parkinsons.

We can use some of the same genetic techniques and apply it to create other primate models of human diseases, Schmidt says.

The researchers also used marmoset stem cells to test a genetic treatment for Parkinsons. They shortened part of a gene to block LRRK2 production, which made positive changes in cellular metabolism.

We found no differences in viability between the cells with the truncated kinase and normal cells, which is a big thing. And when we made neurons from these cells, we actually found an increased number of branches, Emborg says. This kinase gene target is a good candidate to explore as a potential Parkinsons therapy.

This research was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (R24OD019803, P51OD011106 and UL1TR000427).

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New technique developed to treat hardening of internal organs – WNDU-TV

Posted: at 10:45 pm

There is new hope for patients with a rare autoimmune disorder. In mild cases, scleroderma causes areas of hardened skin. But in severe cases, it can also cause deadly hardening of internal organs like the lungs.

A transplant typically used to treat cancer is having remarkable results for patients who had little hope of surviving.

A year ago, Chuck Beschta couldn't walk more than a few minutes without stopping to rest.

"Just going out and doing normal activities outside raking the lawn, mowing the grass, shoveling the driveway, whatever, snow blowing those became impossible," he said.

After months of testing, he was diagnosed with severe scleroderma, which was hardening his skin. But even worse, it was hardening his lungs, making it hard to breathe.

"He was getting worse despite the best therapy we had to offer," University of Wisconsin rheumatologist Dr. Kevin McKown said.

McKown recommended a stem cell transplant newly approved for scleroderma to reboot Beschta's immune system.

"There's a process by which they try to remove the autoreactive immune cells, the cells that are caught in the immune process, and then they infuse that back in and hope that the body will basically take up and graft that immune system," McKown said.

Beschta saw almost immediate results. His skin was softer and his breathing improved. He hopes his scleroderma has been cured.

"I think we can be optimistic, and so far the people who have been followed out as far as 10 years out don't seem to be getting it back," McKown said.

Without a transplant, less than half the patients who have diffuse scleroderma and severe lung disease live 10 years past diagnosis.

Stem cell transplants are commonly used to treat leukemia and lymphoma, cancers that affect the blood and lymphatic system.

MEDICAL BREAKTHROUGHSRESEARCH SUMMARYTOPIC: NEW THERAPY FOR SCLERODERMAREPORT: MB #4698

BACKGROUND: Scleroderma is an autoimmune rheumatic disease where an overproduction of collagen produced in the body tissues causes the skin and internal organs to harden. The symptoms and effects range by person, but some common symptoms include hardened patches of skin (locations on the body vary,) painful and numb-feeling fingers and toes, and sharp internal pain in the esophagus, intestines, heart, lungs, or kidneys. Women are four times as likely to have scleroderma and the onset is between 30 and 50 years of age. However, anyone from infants to the elderly can have scleroderma. Possible risk factors include having certain gene variations as other family members, ethnic groups, exposure to certain medications or drugs, and already having another autoimmune disease, like rheumatoid arthritis, lupus or Sjogren's syndrome. (Source: https://www.scleroderma.org/site/SPageNavigator/patients_whatis.html;jsessionid=00000000.app30132b?NONCE_TOKEN=9B76519DF6B5819859319F0B63B805C9#.XheCGVVKhaQ , https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/scleroderma/symptoms-causes/syc-20351952 )

DIAGNOSING: A physical exam will be conducted as well as a blood test to check for elevated levels of antibodies the immune system produced. The doctor will also take a sample of skin to be tested in the lab. If there are complaints about internal pain, the doctor may run other tests, including imaging, organ function, and other blood tests. (Source: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/scleroderma/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20351957 )

NEW TECHNOLOGY: A new stem cell transplant that's commonly known to treat cancer is improving the quality and quantity of life for those with scleroderma. Rheumatologists at University of Wisconsin Health tested the treatment since they have already been conducting bone marrow transplants for decades. Surgeons take out a sample of the patient's bone marrow, isolate the stem cells, and use radiation and chemotherapy to clean out their immune system. The same stem cells are later injected back into the patient's immune system with the hope that new cells will grow and the system is rid of the bad ones. The process is dangerous when the cells are taken out because the patient's immune system is more vulnerable, making infections more likely to occur. However, after four and a half years, 79% of patients that underwent the treatment were alive without serious complications compared to 50% that were treated with the original drugs. (Source: https://madison.com/wsj/news/local/health-med-fit/man-with-severe-autoimmune-disease-gets-stem-cell-transplant-at/article_7e8e17a5-21da-52f8-b728-fe584dab2b77.html)

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Scientists Grapple with US Restrictions on Fetal Tissue Research – The Scientist

Posted: at 10:45 pm

At several labs across the US, researchers use fetal tissue from humans to investigate everything from viral infections to the developing brain. Such studies have been ongoing for decades, as have politically fraught debates about this research, because it primarily relies on tissue donated after terminated pregnancies.

Last summer, President Donald Trumps administration announced that it would be placing restrictions on experiments involving fetal tissue obtained from elective abortions, which included banning government scientists from using this material for research and applying increased scrutiny for National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant proposals from nongovernmental scientists.

Researchers say that the new restrictions on fetal tissue research have required them to change their plans for future work or to search for alternative sources of funding. Its impacted almost all of the facets of the lab, says Carolyn Coyne, a microbiologist at the University of Pittsburgh who uses fetal tissue to study how viruses penetrate the placenta.

Its affected pretty much every grant application that that weve written.

Mana Parast, University of California, San Deigo

One of the main concerns, according to several researchers who spoke to The Scientist,is the lack of clarity regarding what the NIH will require in grant applications for this work. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), which oversees the NIH, has stated that it would put together a new ethics advisory board to review such proposals. Last week (February 20), HHS posted a notice indicating its intent to convene the NIHs fetal tissue ethics advisory board in 2020. In a written statement to The Scientist,the NIH states that it is in the process of setting up the Ethics Advisory Board for the purpose of evaluating research proposing the use of human fetal tissue from elective abortion.

Scientists are waiting to find out who will be appointed to the board and how it will evaluate proposals once it convenes. [Well] see whether the administration is going to act in good faith and appoint a decent ethics review committee, or if theyre going to ignore the value of the scientific and medical research that needs to be done in this area and let ideology weigh out over logic, says Lawrence Goldstein, a stem cell scientist at the University of California, San Diego, whose lab has worked with fetal cells in the past. The fetal tissue that were talking aboutif we dont use it for research, it will be discarded. Thats the choice. Discard the fetal tissue in the in the trash, or use it for valuable research.

This is not the first time such a ban has been put in place. In 1988, former US President Ronald Reagan placed similar restrictions on federal funding for fetal tissue studies, which stayed in place until President Bill Clinton overturned them during the first year of his term in 1993.

Fetal tissue used for research is primarily obtained from elective abortions, which women can consent to donate after deciding to terminate a pregnancy. This is because there are some major limitations to tissue obtained through other means, such as miscarriages, according to Anita Bhattacharyya, a stem cell scientist at the University of Wisconsin-Madisons Waisman Center. Supply is limited and the underlying factors that lead to pregnancy loss can complicate experiments. On top of that, such events often happen unexpectedly, meaning that the collected tissue is not always intact. We would worry about using poor quality tissue as a foundation for the work we do, says Bhattacharyya, who uses donated fetal brain tissue to study brain development and disorders such as Down syndrome and fragile X syndrome.

Bhattacharyya says that although her lab currently has the tissue it needs to complete experiments from a prior grant, shes not comfortable submitting proposals for studies that require obtaining new fetal tissue. Its because I dont know whats going to happen. If I spend hours writing a grant that I think is really good science, and I send it to NIH . . . its going to get stuck there, Bhattacharyya explains. Were so busy as scientists that to just write a grant that isnt going to go anywhere is a waste of our time.

As such, her projects may suffer. According to Bhattacharyya, not only is brain development difficult to study in model organisms such as rodents, but fragile X and Down syndrome in particular are difficult, if not impossible, to model in animals. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which can be generated by reprogramming cells from skin or blood in adults, have offered an alternative means of studying the development and disorders of the brain, yet researchers still need to validate the results they obtain, Bhattacharyya says. Really, the only way to do that is using fetal tissue.

In addition to cells and tissue from the fetus itself, the restrictions on NIH funding were also applied to other biological materials obtained in the process of abortions, such as umbilical cord, placenta, and amniotic fluid. While some of these can be useful to scientists when collected after birth, placental tissue obtained in this way has limitations. Full term placentas are actually aged tissues, explains Coyne. If were studying a full-term placenta post-delivery, the gnawing question is: Has that placenta changed from the placenta that exists in the first or second trimester?

Mana Parast, a stem cell and placental biologist at the University of California, San Diego, who studies placental development and disorders, tells The Scientist that while the policy change has left ongoing projects unscathed, its affected pretty much every grant application that that weve written since then. While Parasts team has used fetal tissue in the past, they are now focusing on using iPSC-based models. However, like Bhattacharyya, she notes that this isnt the perfect solutionas these models are fairly new and not yet broadly accepted, it is still necessary to validate them with cells from human placentas.

Coyne says that in addition to limiting access to grants for her research, the restrictions have also made it more difficult to procure tissue. A lot of major medical schools have federally funded tissue banks, Coyne explains. Our institutional tissue bank has been affected by this such that we cant obtain tissue from elective terminations anymore.

For researchers who have been able to obtain funding from alternative sources, such as philanthropists or private foundations, the effects of the restrictions have been minimal. Thomas Reh, a biologist at the University of Washington whose team uses fetal tissue to study the developing retina, says that his groups work is currently supported by a grant from the Open Philanthropy Project, a nonprofit organization. When the political climate gets more restrictive, private donors will often step in, Reh says. I wont say that works for everybody, or that it works all the time. At least in my own case, this is whats allowed me to sort of fill these gaps when [restrictions on fetal tissue] happen.

Its the next generation of trainees that are going to be most impacted, not just because they cant get funding, but if I were one of them, I would think to myself, is this really an area that I want to specialize in?

Carolyn Coyne, University of Pittsburgh

Andrew McMahon, a stem cell scientist at the University of Southern California, still has about a year left before he needs to apply for more funding, and hes started looking into potential alternatives to NIH. My understanding is that its not entirely clear at the moment what that process is going to be, McMahon says. Ive been using the time to obtain non-NIH funding to support aspects of the research that I would have tried to get NIH funding [for] in the future.

Private funds are not available to everyone, and can be more difficult for researchers in some fields to obtain than others. For some of the disorders that I work on, the major private funding foundation does not allow fetal tissue research, Bhattacharyya says. And sometimes the foundation funding can be quite a bit less than NIH funding.

For researchers in some states, nonprofits are not the only option. In California, the states stem cell agency, the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) has provided funding for stem cell studies using fetal tissue since it was founded in 2004. That fund is about to run out, but a bill that would provide $5.5 billion in funding to CIRM will come before voters in November.

That will hopefully provide funding for areas of fetal tissue research that involves stem cells, Goldstein says. But . . . its ridiculous to rely on one or two states to self-fund, because we dont have all of the best and brightest [scientists], and it means lots of students and postdocs will train in areas where federal training support will be unavailable to them.

Goldstein isnt the only one concerned that the most profound effect of the governments restrictions will be on early-career investigators and trainees. While established researchers may be able to circumvent the effects of the restrictions in the short term, the ramifications for trainees in this field will likely be much longer-lasting, Coyne says. Its the next generation of trainees that are going to be most impacted, not just because they cant get funding, but if I were one of them, I would think to myself, is this really an area that I want to specialize in and get into?

One scientist, who asked to remain anonymous for fear of being harassed by anti-abortion activists, tells The Scientist that the restrictions have been a source of huge stress and anxiety for his lab, which he only established a few years ago. He adds that while his team has pivoted to using animal models and organoids generated from iPSCs, these are imperfect models of the developing human brain, which is the focus of his work.

It makes no sense to limit this research, given that the tissue from abortions will get discarded now that donation is not an option, Parast says. Were not talking about encouraging this procedurewere trying to use the material from patients who have already decided to undergo this procedure in order to be able to help other women.

Diana Kwon is a Berlin-based freelance journalist. Follow her on Twitter@DianaMKwon.

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