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Masters in Biotechnology Programs and Degrees in Biotechnology

Posted: January 14, 2017 at 1:42 pm

Considering a Masters in Biotechnology Program or reviewing options for Masters Degrees in Biotechnology? A Masters in Biotechnology can openupexciting

Biotechnology is a challenging field that can involve a number of facets of both science and business or law. Many biotechnology master’s degree programs focus on aspects of biology, cell biology, chemistry, or biological or chemical engineering. In general, biotechnology degrees involve research whether they are at a Masters or PhD level.

Scientific understanding is rapidly evolving, particularly in areas of cellular and molecular systems. Biotechnology master’s students can therefore enjoy rich study opportunities particularly in fields such as genetic engineering, the Human Genome project, the production of new medicinal products, and research into the relationship between genetic malfunction and the origin of disease. These are just a few of the many areas that biotechnology students have the opportunity to explore today.

Another focus of biotechnology masters programs may be to equip students with the combination of science and business knowledge they need to help produce products and move them toward production. Today’s complex business environment and government regulations require many steps and people with the ability to both understand and help produce new scientific technologies as well as get them approved and be able to market them.

Master degrees in biotechnology might prepare students to pursue careers in a variety of industries. While many students go on to further research or academic positions, there may also be some demand for biotechnologists outside of academia, both in the government and private sectors. Biotechnologists might pursue careers in anything from research to applied science and manufacturing. Those with specializations in business aspects of biotechnology may be qualified to pursue management positions within organizations attempting to produce and market new biotechnology.

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Masters in Biotechnology Programs and Degrees in Biotechnology

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Biotechnology –

Posted: at 1:42 pm

Biotechnology has proven to be an important tool for better sustainability and food security. It helps farmers grow more food while improving the environment. For example, biotechnology reduces the use of costly inputs and improves weed management, allowing farmers to reduce tillage for better soil, water and air quality. Today, roughly 90 percent of corn, cotton and soybeans grown in the U.S. have been improved through biotechnology, and farmers are choosing biotech traits when growing other crops such as alfalfa, sugarbeets and canola.

Despite rapid adoption by farmers and a strong scientific consensus that biotechnology does not pose health and environmental risks, regulatory burdens are slowing research and innovation of new biotech traits and are starting to reduce U.S. farmers international competitive advantage. In addition, activist groups routinely threaten the availability of new traits by blocking science-based regulatory decisions, filing lawsuits and advocating for labeling mandates.

GM crops require less water and fewer chemical applications than conventional crops, and they are better able to survive drought, weeds, and insects.

U.S. agriculture will maintain its competitive advantage in world markets only if we continue to support innovations in technology and grasp opportunities for future biotech products.

To improve regulation of biotechnology, Farm Bureau supports:

Farm Bureau encourages efforts to educate farmers to be good stewards of biotech crops to preserve accessand marketability.

Farm Bureau believes agricultural products grown using approved biotechnology should not be subject to mandatory labeling. We supportexisting FDA labeling policies and opposestate policies on biotech labeling, identification, use and availability.

On July 29, 2016 the president signed S. 764, the National Bioengineered Food Disclosure Standard, into law. While not perfect, S. 764 was a compromise that Farm Bureau endorsed. The law creates a uniform standard for the disclosure of ingredients derived from bioengineering and allows food companies to provide that information through an on-package statement, symbol or electronic disclosure. It also created a strong federal preemption provision to protect interstate commerce and prevent state-by-state labeling laws and was effective on the date of enactment. USDA has two years to develop the disclosure standards and Farm Bureau will be an active participant in the rulemaking process.

Farm Bureau supports active involvement and leadership by the U.S. government in the development of international standards for biotechnology, including harmonization of regulatory standards, testing and LLP policies.

This resource can help set the record straight on GMOs, to correct misinformation and show why biotechnology is so important to agriculture.

Benefits of Biotech Toolkit (PDF)

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Biotechnology –

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Sickle-cell disease – Wikipedia

Posted: January 5, 2017 at 12:48 pm

Sickle-cell disease (SCD) is a group of blood disorders typically inherited from a person’s parents.[1] The most common type is known as sickle-cell anaemia (SCA). It results in an abnormality in the oxygen-carrying protein haemoglobin found in red blood cells. This leads to a rigid, sickle-like shape under certain circumstances.[1] Problems in sickle cell disease typically begin around 5 to 6 months of age. A number of health problems may develop, such as attacks of pain (“sickle-cell crisis”), anemia, bacterial infections, and stroke.[2]Long term pain may develop as people get older. The average life expectancy in the developed world is 40 to 60 years.[1]

Sickle-cell disease occurs when a person inherits two abnormal copies of the haemoglobin gene, one from each parent.[3] Several subtypes exist, depending on the exact mutation in each haemoglobin gene.[1] An attack can be set off by temperature changes, stress, dehydration, and high altitude.[2] A person with a single abnormal copy does not usually have symptoms and is said to have sickle-cell trait.[3] Such people are also referred to as carriers.[4] Diagnosis is by a blood test and some countries test all babies at birth for the disease. Diagnosis is also possible during pregnancy.[5]

The care of people with sickle-cell disease may include infection prevention with vaccination and antibiotics, high fluid intake, folic acid supplementation, and pain medication.[4][6] Other measures may include blood transfusion, and the medication hydroxycarbamide (hydroxyurea).[6] A small proportion of people can be cured by a transplant of bone marrow cells.[1]

As of 2013 about 3.2 million people have sickle-cell disease while an additional 43 million have sickle-cell trait.[7] About 80% of sickle-cell disease cases are believed to occur in sub-Saharan Africa.[8] It also occurs relatively frequently in parts of India, the Arabian peninsula, and among people of African origin living in other parts of the world.[9] In 2013, it resulted in 176,000 deaths, up from 113,000 deaths in 1990.[10] The condition was first described in the medical literature by the American physician James B. Herrick in 1910.[11][12] In 1949 the genetic transmission was determined by E. A. Beet and J. V. Neel. In 1954 the protective effect against malaria of sickle-cell trait was described.[12]

Sickle-cell disease may lead to various acute and chronic complications, several of which have a high mortality rate.[13]

The terms “sickle-cell crisis” or “sickling crisis” may be used to describe several independent acute conditions occurring in patients with SCD. SCD results in anemia and crises that could be of many types including the vaso-occlusive crisis, aplastic crisis, sequestration crisis, haemolytic crisis, and others. Most episodes of sickle-cell crises last between five and seven days.[14] “Although infection, dehydration, and acidosis (all of which favor sickling) can act as triggers, in most instances, no predisposing cause is identified.”[15]

The vaso-occlusive crisis is caused by sickle-shaped red blood cells that obstruct capillaries and restrict blood flow to an organ resulting in ischaemia, pain, necrosis, and often organ damage. The frequency, severity, and duration of these crises vary considerably. Painful crises are treated with hydration, analgesics, and blood transfusion; pain management requires opioid administration at regular intervals until the crisis has settled. For milder crises, a subgroup of patients manage on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as diclofenac or naproxen. For more severe crises, most patients require inpatient management for intravenous opioids; patient-controlled analgesia devices are commonly used in this setting. Vaso-occlusive crisis involving organs such as the penis[16] or lungs are considered an emergency and treated with red-blood cell transfusions. Incentive spirometry, a technique to encourage deep breathing to minimise the development of atelectasis, is recommended.[17]

Because of its narrow vessels and function in clearing defective red blood cells, the spleen is frequently affected.[18] It is usually infarcted before the end of childhood in individuals suffering from sickle-cell anemia. This spleen damage increases the risk of infection from encapsulated organisms;[19][20] preventive antibiotics and vaccinations are recommended for those lacking proper spleen function.

Splenic sequestration crises are acute, painful enlargements of the spleen, caused by intrasplenic trapping of red cells and resulting in a precipitous fall in haemoglobin levels with the potential for hypovolemic shock. Sequestration crises are considered an emergency. If not treated, patients may die within 12 hours due to circulatory failure. Management is supportive, sometimes with blood transfusion. These crises are transient, they continue for 34 hours and may last for one day.[21]

Acute chest syndrome (ACS) is defined by at least two of the following signs or symptoms: chest pain, fever, pulmonary infiltrate or focal abnormality, respiratory symptoms, or hypoxemia.[22] It is the second-most common complication and it accounts for about 25% of deaths in patients with SCD, majority of cases present with vaso-occlusive crises then they develop ACS.[23][24] Nevertheless, about 80% of patients have vaso-occlusive crises during ACS.

Aplastic crises are acute worsenings of the patient’s baseline anaemia, producing pale appearance, fast heart rate, and fatigue. This crisis is normally triggered by parvovirus B19, which directly affects production of red blood cells by invading the red cell precursors and multiplying in and destroying them.[25] Parvovirus infection almost completely prevents red blood cell production for two to three days. In normal individuals, this is of little consequence, but the shortened red cell life of SCD patients results in an abrupt, life-threatening situation. Reticulocyte counts drop dramatically during the disease (causing reticulocytopenia), and the rapid turnover of red cells leads to the drop in haemoglobin. This crisis takes 4 days to one week to disappear. Most patients can be managed supportively; some need blood transfusion.[26]

Haemolytic crises are acute accelerated drops in haemoglobin level. The red blood cells break down at a faster rate. This is particularly common in patients with coexistent G6PD deficiency.[27] Management is supportive, sometimes with blood transfusions.[17]

One of the earliest clinical manifestations is dactylitis, presenting as early as six months of age, and may occur in children with sickle-cell trait.[28] The crisis can last up to a month.[29] Another recognised type of sickle crisis, acute chest syndrome, is characterised by fever, chest pain, difficulty breathing, and pulmonary infiltrate on a chest X-ray. Given that pneumonia and sickling in the lung can both produce these symptoms, the patient is treated for both conditions.[30] It can be triggered by painful crisis, respiratory infection, bone-marrow embolisation, or possibly by atelectasis, opiate administration, or surgery.[citation needed]Hematopoietic ulcers may also occur.[31]

Normally, humans have haemoglobin A, which consists of two alpha and two beta chains, haemoglobin A2, which consists of two alpha and two delta chains, and haemoglobin F, consisting of two alpha and two gamma chains in their bodies. Of these, haemoglobin F dominates until about 6 weeks of age. Afterwards, haemoglobin A dominates throughout life.[citation needed]

Sickle-cell conditions have an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance from parents. The types of haemoglobin a person makes in the red blood cells depend on what haemoglobin genes are inherited from her or his parents. If one parent has sickle-cell anaemia and the other has sickle-cell trait, then the child has a 50% chance of having sickle-cell disease and a 50% chance of having sickle-cell trait. When both parents have sickle-cell trait, a child has a 25% chance of sickle-cell disease, 25% do not carry any sickle-cell alleles, and 50% have the heterozygous condition.[32]

Sickle-cell gene mutation probably arose spontaneously in different geographic areas, as suggested by restriction endonuclease analysis. These variants are known as Cameroon, Senegal, Benin, Bantu, and Saudi-Asian. Their clinical importance is because some are associated with higher HbF levels, e.g., Senegal and Saudi-Asian variants, and tend to have milder disease.[33]

In people heterozygous for HgbS (carriers of sickling haemoglobin), the polymerisation problems are minor, because the normal allele is able to produce over 50% of the haemoglobin. In people homozygous for HgbS, the presence of long-chain polymers of HbS distort the shape of the red blood cell from a smooth doughnut-like shape to ragged and full of spikes, making it fragile and susceptible to breaking within capillaries. Carriers have symptoms only if they are deprived of oxygen (for example, while climbing a mountain) or while severely dehydrated. The sickle-cell disease occurs when the sixth amino acid, glutamic acid, is replaced by valine to change its structure and function; as such, sickle-cell anemia is also known as E6V. Valine is hydrophobic, causing the haemoglobin to collapse on itself occasionally. The structure is not changed otherwise. When enough haemoglobin collapses on itself the red blood cells become sickle-shaped.[citation needed]

The gene defect is a known mutation of a single nucleotide (see single-nucleotide polymorphism – SNP) (A to T) of the -globin gene, which results in glutamic acid (E/Glu) being substituted by valine (V/Val) at position 6. Note, historic numbering put this glutamic acid residue at position 6 due to skipping the methionine (M/Met) start codon in protein amino acid position numbering. Current nomenclature calls for counting the methionine as the first amino acid, resulting in the glutamic acid residue falling at position 7. Many references still refer to position 6 and both should likely be referenced for clarity. Haemoglobin S with this mutation is referred to as HbS, as opposed to the normal adult HbA. The genetic disorder is due to the mutation of a single nucleotide, from a GAG to GTG codon on the coding strand, which is transcribed from the template strand into a GUG codon. Based on genetic code, GAG codon translates to glutamic acid (E/Glu) while GUG codon translates to valine (V/Val) amino acid at position 6. This is normally a benign mutation, causing no apparent effects on the secondary, tertiary, or quaternary structures of haemoglobin in conditions of normal oxygen concentration. What it does allow for, under conditions of low oxygen concentration, is the polymerization of the HbS itself. The deoxy form of haemoglobin exposes a hydrophobic patch on the protein between the E and F helices. The hydrophobic side chain of the valine residue at position 6 of the beta chain in haemoglobin is able to associate with the hydrophobic patch, causing haemoglobin S molecules to aggregate and form fibrous precipitates.

The allele responsible for sickle-cell anaemia can be found on the short arm of chromosome 11, more specifically 11p15.5. A person who receives the defective gene from both father and mother develops the disease; a person who receives one defective and one healthy allele remains healthy, but can pass on the disease and is known as a carrier or heterozygote. Heterozygotes are still able to contract malaria, but their symptoms are generally less severe.[34]

Due to the adaptive advantage of the heterozygote, the disease is still prevalent, especially among people with recent ancestry in malaria-stricken areas, such as Africa, the Mediterranean, India, and the Middle East.[35] Malaria was historically endemic to southern Europe, but it was declared eradicated in the mid-20th century, with the exception of rare sporadic cases.[36]

The malaria parasite has a complex lifecycle and spends part of it in red blood cells. In a carrier, the presence of the malaria parasite causes the red blood cells with defective haemoglobin to rupture prematurely, making the Plasmodium parasite unable to reproduce. Further, the polymerization of Hb affects the ability of the parasite to digest Hb in the first place. Therefore, in areas where malaria is a problem, people’s chances of survival actually increase if they carry sickle-cell trait (selection for the heterozygote).

In the USA, with no endemic malaria, the prevalence of sickle-cell anaemia among African Americans is lower (about 0.25%) than in West Africa (about 4.0%) and is falling. Without endemic malaria, the sickle-cell mutation is purely disadvantageous and tends to decline in the affected population by natural selection, and now artificially through prenatal genetic screening. However, the African American community descends from a significant admixture of several African and non-African ethnic groups and also represents the descendants of survivors of slavery and the slave trade. Thus, a lower degree of endogamy and, particularly, abnormally high health-selective pressure through slavery may be the most plausible explanations for the lower prevalence of sickle-cell anaemia (and, possibly, other genetic diseases) among African Americans compared to West Africans. Another factor that limits the spread of sickle-cell genes in North America is the absence of cultural proclivities to polygamy, which allows affected males to continue to seek unaffected children with multiple partners.[37]

The loss of red blood cell elasticity is central to the pathophysiology of sickle-cell disease. Normal red blood cells are quite elastic, which allows the cells to deform to pass through capillaries. In sickle-cell disease, low oxygen tension promotes red blood cell sickling and repeated episodes of sickling damage the cell membrane and decrease the cell’s elasticity. These cells fail to return to normal shape when normal oxygen tension is restored. As a consequence, these rigid blood cells are unable to deform as they pass through narrow capillaries, leading to vessel occlusion and ischaemia.

The actual anaemia of the illness is caused by haemolysis, the destruction of the red cells, because of their shape. Although the bone marrow attempts to compensate by creating new red cells, it does not match the rate of destruction.[38] Healthy red blood cells typically function for 90120 days, but sickled cells only last 1020 days.[39]

In HbSS, the complete blood count reveals haemoglobin levels in the range of 68g/dl with a high reticulocyte count (as the bone marrow compensates for the destruction of sickled cells by producing more red blood cells). In other forms of sickle-cell disease, Hb levels tend to be higher. A blood film may show features of hyposplenism (target cells and Howell-Jolly bodies).

Sickling of the red blood cells, on a blood film, can be induced by the addition of sodium metabisulfite. The presence of sickle haemoglobin can also be demonstrated with the “sickle solubility test”. A mixture of haemoglobin S (Hb S) in a reducing solution (such as sodium dithionite) gives a turbid appearance, whereas normal Hb gives a clear solution.

Abnormal haemoglobin forms can be detected on haemoglobin electrophoresis, a form of gel electrophoresis on which the various types of haemoglobin move at varying speeds. Sickle-cell haemoglobin (HgbS) and haemoglobin C with sickling (HgbSC)the two most common formscan be identified from there. The diagnosis can be confirmed with high-performance liquid chromatography. Genetic testing is rarely performed, as other investigations are highly specific for HbS and HbC.[40]

An acute sickle-cell crisis is often precipitated by infection. Therefore, a urinalysis to detect an occult urinary tract infection, and chest X-ray to look for occult pneumonia should be routinely performed.[41]

People who are known carriers of the disease often undergo genetic counseling before they have a child. A test to see if an unborn child has the disease takes either a blood sample from the fetus or a sample of amniotic fluid. Since taking a blood sample from a fetus has greater risks, the latter test is usually used. Neonatal screening provides not only a method of early detection for individuals with sickle-cell disease, but also allows for identification of the groups of people that carry the sickle cell trait.[42]

Folic acid daily for life is recommended. From birth to five years of age, penicillin daily due to the immature immune system that makes them more prone to early childhood illnesses is also recommended.

The protective effect of sickle-cell trait does not apply to people with sickle cell disease; in fact, they are more vulnerable to malaria, since the most common cause of painful crises in malarial countries is infection with malaria. It has therefore been recommended that people with sickle-cell disease living in malarial countries should receive anti-malarial chemoprophylaxis for life.[43]

Most people with sickle-cell disease have intensely painful episodes called vaso-occlusive crises. However, the frequency, severity, and duration of these crises vary tremendously. Painful crises are treated symptomatically with pain medications; pain management requires opioid administration at regular intervals until the crisis has settled. For milder crises, a subgroup of patients manage on NSAIDs (such as diclofenac or naproxen). For more severe crises, most patients require inpatient management for intravenous opioids; patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) devices are commonly used in this setting. Diphenhydramine is also an effective agent that doctors frequently prescribe to help control itching associated with the use of opioids.[citation needed]

Management is similar to vaso-occlusive crisis, with the addition of antibiotics (usually a quinolone or macrolide, since cell wall-deficient [“atypical”] bacteria are thought to contribute to the syndrome),[44] oxygen supplementation for hypoxia, and close observation. Should the pulmonary infiltrate worsen or the oxygen requirements increase, simple blood transfusion or exchange transfusion is indicated. The latter involves the exchange of a significant portion of the person’s red cell mass for normal red cells, which decreases the percent of haemoglobin S in the patient’s blood. The patient with suspected acute chest syndrome should be admitted to the hospital with worsening A-a gradient an indication for ICU admission.[22]

The first approved drug for the causative treatment of sickle-cell anaemia, hydroxyurea, was shown to decrease the number and severity of attacks in a study in 1995 (Charache et al.)[45] and shown to possibly increase survival time in a study in 2003 (Steinberg et al.).[46] This is achieved, in part, by reactivating fetal haemoglobin production in place of the haemoglobin S that causes sickle-cell anaemia. Hydroxyurea had previously been used as a chemotherapy agent, and there is some concern that long-term use may be harmful, but this risk has been shown to be either absent or very small and it is likely that the benefits outweigh the risks.[13][47]

Blood transfusions are often used in the management of sickle-cell disease in acute cases and to prevent complications by decreasing the number of red blood cells (RBC) that can sickle by adding normal red blood cells.[48] In children preventative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion therapy has been shown to reduce the risk of first stroke or silent stroke when transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography shows abnormal cerebral blood flow.[6] In those who have sustained a prior stroke event it also reduces the risk of recurrent stroke and additional silent strokes.[49][50]

Bone marrow transplants have proven effective in children. Bone marrow transplants are the only known cure for SCD.[51] However, bone marrow transplants are difficult to obtain because of the specific HLA typing necessary. Ideally, a close relative (allogeneic) would donate the bone marrow necessary for transplantation.

About 90% of people survive to age 20, and close to 50% survive beyond the fifth decade.[52] In 2001, according to one study performed in Jamaica, the estimated mean survival for people with sickle-cell was 53 years old for men and 58 years old for women with homozygous SCD.[53] The specific life expectancy in much of the developing world is unknown.[54]

Sickle-cell anaemia can lead to various complications, including:

The highest frequency of sickle cell disease is found in tropical regions, particularly sub-Saharan Africa, tribal regions of India and the Middle-East.[67] Migration of substantial populations from these high prevalence areas to low prevalence countries in Europe has dramatically increased in recent decades and in some European countries sickle-cell disease has now overtaken more familiar genetic conditions such as haemophilia and cystic fibrosis.[68] In 2013 it resulted in 176,000 deaths due to SCD up from 113,000 deaths in 1990.[10]

Sickle-cell disease occurs more commonly among people whose ancestors lived in tropical and sub-tropical sub-Saharan regions where malaria is or was common. Where malaria is common, carrying a single sickle-cell allele (trait) confers a selective advantagein other words, being a heterozygote is advantageous. Specifically, humans with one of the two alleles of sickle-cell disease show less severe symptoms when infected with malaria.[69]

Three-quarters of sickle-cell cases occur in Africa. A recent WHO report estimated that around 2% of newborns in Nigeria were affected by sickle cell anaemia, giving a total of 150,000 affected children born every year in Nigeria alone. The carrier frequency ranges between 10% and 40% across equatorial Africa, decreasing to 12% on the north African coast and

The number of people with the disease in the United States is approximately 1 in 5,000, mostly affecting Americans of Sub-Saharan African descent, according to the National Institutes of Health.[72] In the United States, about one out of 500 African-American children and one in every 36,000 Hispanic-American children have sickle-cell anaemia.[73] It is estimated that sickle-cell disease affects 90,000 Americans.[74] Most infants with SCD born in the United States are now identified by routine neonatal screening. As of 2016 all 50 states include screening for sickle cell disease as part of their newborn screen.[75]

As a result of population growth in African-Caribbean regions of overseas France and immigration from North and sub-Saharan Africa to mainland France, sickle-cell disease has become a major health problem in France.[76] SCD has become the most common genetic disease in the country, with an overall birth prevalence of 1/2,415 in mainland France, ahead of phenylketonuria (1/10,862), congenital hypothyroidism (1/3,132), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (1/19,008) and cystic fibrosis (1/5,014) for the same reference period. In 2010, 31.5% of all newborns in mainland France (253,466 out of 805,958) were screened for SCD (this percentage was 19% in 2000). 341 newborns with SCD and 8,744 heterozygous carriers were found representing 1.1% of all newborns in mainland France. The Paris metropolitan district (le-de-France) is the region that accounts for the largest number of newborns screened for SCD (60% in 2010). The second largest number of at-risk is in Provence-Alpes-Cte d’Azur at nearly 43.2% and the lowest number is in Brittany at 5.5%.[77][78]

In the United Kingdom (UK) it is thought that between 12,000 and 15,000 people have sickle cell disease [79] with an estimate of 250,000 carriers of the condition in England alone. As the number of carriers is only estimated, all newborn babies in the UK receive a routine blood test to screen for the condition.[80] Due to many adults in high-risk groups not knowing if they are carriers, pregnant women and both partners in a couple are offered screening so they can get counselling if they have the sickle cell trait.[81] In addition blood donors from those in high-risk groups are also screened to confirm whether they are carriers and whether their blood filters properly.[82] Donors who are found to be carriers are then informed and their blood, while often used for those of the same ethnic group, is not used for those with sickle cell disease who require a blood transfusion.[83]

In Saudi Arabia about 4.2% of the population carry the sickle-cell trait and 0.26% have sickle-cell disease. The highest prevalence is in the Eastern province where approximately 17% of the population carry the gene and 1.2% have sickle-cell disease.[84] In 2005 in Saudi Arabia a mandatory pre-marital test including HB electrophoresis was launched and aimed to decrease the incidence of SCD and thalassemia.[85]

In Bahrain a study published in 1998 that covered about 56,000 people in hospitals in Bahrain found that 2% of newborns have sickle cell disease, 18% of the surveyed people have the sickle cell trait, and 24% were carriers of the gene mutation causing the disease.[86] The country began screening of all pregnant women in 1992 and newborns started being tested if the mother was a carrier. In 2004, a law was passed requiring couples planning to get married to undergo free premarital counseling. These programs were accompanied by public education campaigns.[87]

Sickle-cell disease is common in ethnic groups of central India who share a genetic linkage with African communities,[citation needed] where the prevalence has ranged from 9.4 to 22.2% in endemic areas of Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Chhattisgarh.[88] It is also endemic among Tharu people of Nepal and India; however, they have a sevenfold lower incidence of malaria despite living in a malaria infested zone.[89]

In Jamaica, 10% of the population carries the sickle-cell gene, making it the most prevalent genetic disorder in the country.[90]

The first modern report of sickle-cell disease may have been in 1846, where the autopsy of an executed runaway slave was discussed; the key findings was the absence of the spleen.[91][92] There were also reports amongst African slaves in the United States exhibiting resistance to malaria but being prone to leg ulcers.[92] The abnormal characteristics of the red blood cells, which later lent their name to the condition, was first described by Ernest E. Irons (18771959), intern to the Chicago cardiologist and professor of medicine James B. Herrick (18611954), in 1910. Irons saw “peculiar elongated and sickle-shaped” cells in the blood of a man named Walter Clement Noel, a 20-year-old first-year dental student from Grenada. Noel had been admitted to the Chicago Presbyterian Hospital in December 1904 suffering from anaemia.[11][93] Noel was readmitted several times over the next three years for “muscular rheumatism” and “bilious attacks” but completed his studies and returned to the capital of Grenada (St. George’s) to practice dentistry. He died of pneumonia in 1916 and is buried in the Catholic cemetery at Sauteurs in the north of Grenada.[11][12] Shortly after the report by Herrick, another case appeared in the Virginia Medical Semi-Monthly with the same title, “Peculiar Elongated and Sickle-Shaped Red Blood Corpuscles in a Case of Severe Anemia.”[94] This article is based on a patient admitted to the University of Virginia Hospital on November 15, 1910.[95] In the later description by Verne Mason in 1922, the name “sickle cell anemia” is first used.[12][96] Childhood problems related to sickle cells disease were not reported until the 1930s, despite the fact that this cannot have been uncommon in African-American populations.[92]

The Memphis physician Lemuel Diggs, a prolific researcher into sickle cell disease, first introduced the distinction between sickle cell disease and trait in 1933, although it took until 1949 until the genetic characteristics were elucidated by James V. Neel and E.A. Beet.[12] 1949 was the year when Linus Pauling described the unusual chemical behaviour of haemoglobin S, and attributed this to an abnormality in the molecule itself.[12][97] The actual molecular change in HbS was described in the late 1950s BY Vernon Ingram.[12] The late 1940s and early 1950s saw further understanding in the link between malaria and sickle cell disease. In 1954, the introduction of haemoglobin electrophoresis allowed the discovery of particular subtypes, such as HbSC disease.[12]

Large scale natural history studies and further intervention studies were introduced in the 1970s and 1980s, leading to widespread use of prophylaxis against pneumococcal infections amongst other interventions. Bill Cosby’s Emmy-winning 1972 TV movie, To All My Friends on Shore, depicted the story of the parents of a child suffering from sickle-cell disease.[98] The 1990s saw the development of hydroxycarbamide, and reports of cure through bone marrow transplantation appeared in 2007.[12]

Some old texts refer to it as drepanocytosis.[citation needed]

In December 1998, researchers from Emory University conducted an experimental bone marrow transplant procedure on a group of 22 children under 16 years old.[99] One of those patients, 12-year-old Keone Penn, was apparently the first person to be cured of sickle-cell disease through this method.[100] The stem cells were sourced from a donor unrelated to Penn. A 2007 Georgia Senate bill proposing the collection and donation of stem cell material, the “Saving the Cure Act”, was nicknamed “Keone’s Law” in his honor.[101]

By mid-2007 a similar set of clinical trials in Baltimore had also cured several adults.[102]

In 2001 it was reported that sickle-cell disease had been successfully treated in mice using gene therapy.[103][104] The researchers used a viral vector to make the micewhich have essentially the same defect that causes human sickle cell diseaseexpress production of fetal haemoglobin (HbF), which an individual normally ceases to produce shortly after birth. In humans, using hydroxyurea to stimulate the production of HbF has been known to temporarily alleviate sickle cell disease symptoms. The researchers demonstrated that this gene therapy method is a more permanent way to increase therapeutic HbF production.[105]

Phase 1 clinical trials of gene therapy for sickle cell disease in humans were started in 2014. The clinical trials will assess the safety and initial evidence for efficacy of an autologous transplant of lentiviral vector-modified bone marrow for adults with severe sickle cell disease.[106][107] As of 2014, however, no randomized controlled trials have been reported.[108]

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Sickle-cell disease – Wikipedia

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Cord Blood Banking Cost | Cord Blood and Tissue Banking Prices

Posted: January 4, 2017 at 7:42 pm

We also offer special discounts for multiple births, military families, medical professionals and more.Please call 800.786.7235 for details. Annual Storage



(Includes initial processing fee, 1st year of storage and additional 20 years of storage)


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Down payment is due at enrollment. *Actual monthly payment will be slightly lower than what is being shown. Cannot be combined with other offers or discounts. Add $50 to down payment for medical courier service from Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico. After the first year annual storage fees will apply, $150 for cord blood and $150 for cord tissue. A monthly service fee is included in the monthly payment.

Down payment is due at enrollment. *Actual monthly payment will be slightly lower than what is being shown. Cannot be combined with other offers or discounts. Add $50 to down payment for medical courier service from Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico. After the second year annual storage fees will apply, $150 for cord blood and $150 for cord tissue. A monthly service fee is included in the monthly payment.

*Fee schedule subject to change without notice. If a client has received a kit and discontinues services prior to collection, there is no cancellation fee if the kit is returned within two weeks from cancellation notice. Additional courier service fee applies for Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico. Applies to 1-year plan and promotional plan only. After the first year, an annual storage fee will apply. Cryo-Cell guarantees to match any written offer for product determined to be similar at Cryo-Cells sole discretion. ** Promotional Plan cannot be combined with any other promotional offers, coupons or financing.

In order to preserve more types and quantity of umbilical cord stem cells and to maximize possible future health options, Cryo-Cells umbilical cord tissue service provides expectant families with the opportunity to cryogenically store their newborns umbilical cord tissue cells contained within substantially intact cord tissue. Should umbilical cord tissue cells be considered for potential utilization in a future therapeutic application, further laboratory processing may be necessary. Regarding umbilical cord tissue, all private blood banks activities for New York State residents are limited to collection, processing, and long-term storage of umbilical cord tissue stem cells. The possession of a New York State license for such collection, processing and long-term storage does not indicate approval or endorsement of possible future uses or future suitability of these cells.

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3 Biotech – a SpringerOpen journal

Posted: January 3, 2017 at 5:45 am

3 Biotech is a quarterly, peer-reviewed open access journal published under the brand SpringerOpen.

Continuous Article Publishing (CAP)

3 Biotech will be moving to the Continuous Article Publishing (CAP) in 2016, in which newly accepted papers will be published online with volume and article numbers, shortly after receipt of authors proofs. This change will alleviate the significant backlog of accepted articles that are currently available online as “published ahead of time,” but are awaiting formal publication with a volume, issue number and page numbers. To achieve a smooth transition to the CAP model, all papers that have been accepted after June 2015 have been held back and will be published with volume and article numbers from January 2016 onwards. We wish to apologize for this short delay in article processing during this important transition phase, which is designed to speed up the process from acceptance of articles to final publication without the need for articles to be placed in a “published ahead of time” waiting line. In addition, a formal rapid publication from 2016 will ensure that all articles in 3 Biotech are immediately available in indexing services for researchers.

3 Biotech publishes the results of the latest research related to the study and application of biotechnology to:

– Medicine and Biomedical Sciences – Agriculture – The Environment

The focus on these three technology sectors recognizes that complete Biotechnology applications often require a combination of techniques. 3 Biotech not only presents the latest developments in biotechnology but also addresses the problems and benefits of integrating a variety of techniques for a particular application. 3 Biotech will appeal to scientists and engineers in both academia and industry focused on the safe and efficient application of Biotechnology to Medicine, Agriculture and the Environment.

Articles from a huge variety of biotechnology applications are welcome including:

– Cancer and stem cell research – Genetic engineering and cloning – Bioremediation and biodegradation – Bioinformatics and system biology – Biomarkers and biosensors – Biodiversity and biodiscovery – Biorobotics and biotoxins – Analytical biotechnology and the human genome

3 Biotech accepts original and review articles as well as short research reports, protocols and methods, notes to the editor, letters to the editor and book reviews for publication. Up to date topical review articles will also be considered. All the manuscripts are peer-reviewed for scientific quality and acceptance.


3Biotech hasrecently receivedits first Impact Factor and is nowcovered by a range of A&I services, including:

– Science Citation Index Expanded – Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition – Biological Abstracts – BIOSIS Previews

Best Paper Award: 3 Biotech is supported by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Saudi Arabia. Every year KACST awards the best paper with the KACST Medal and $5,000. The editors of 3 Biotech have elected the best paper among those published in 2011-2012 and 2012-2013.

– The 2011-2012 winning paper is:

Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and zinc-doped hydroxyapatite as carrier material for controlled delivery of ciprofloxacin

Authors: G. Devanand Venkatasubbu and colleagues at Anna University, India.

– The 2012-2013winning paper is: Stress influenced increase in phenolic content and radical scavenging capacity of Rhodotorula glutinis CCY 20-2-26 Authors: Raj Kumar Salar and colleagues at Chaudhary Devi Lal University, India.

Related subjects Agriculture – Biomaterials – Biotechnology – Cancer Research – Cell Biology – Systems Biology and Bioinformatics

Journal Citation Reports, Thomson Reuters

Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, PubMed, PubMedCentral, EMBASE, Google Scholar, CAB International, AGRICOLA, Biological Abstracts, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, DOAJ, Global Health, OCLC, Summon by ProQuest

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Prairie Heart

Posted: December 31, 2016 at 3:43 am

There is something very unique going on at the Prairie Heart Institute in Springfield, Illinois.

Prairie Heart Institute is participating in an investigational clinical study called ALLSTAR, using donor heart cells that may help patients who have suffered a heart attack regenerate the dead heart muscle that is often the result of such an event. Heart muscle dies even if the patient survives a heart attack. This results in a less efficient heart and reduces blood flow through the body.

The Prairie Heart Institute at St. John’s hospital in Springfield, Illinois is one of approximately thirty sites testing the investigational procedure in the ALLSTAR trial sponsored by Capricor, Inc., a Los Angeles biotechnology company. The procedure infuses healthy cardiac cells from a donor heart that are meant to boost the damaged heart’s natural ability to repair itself. If it works, functional heart muscle should grow replacing the dead heart muscle thereby potentially improving the strength and efficiency of the beating heart.

The trial has successfully completed Phase I, which mainly evaluated safety. Capricor has received permission to begin Phase II, and ALLSTAR will continue to examine safety along with efficacy in approximately 300 patients who will receive either the investigational procedure or a placebo. More information can be found at under the identifier NCT01458405.

“The previous study used autologous cells, taken from the treated patient itself. However, using donor cells may be preferable over autologous for practical reasons,” said Dr. Frank Aguirre, the cardiologist heading up the clinical study at Prairie Heart Institute. “Donor cells, called allogeneic cells, can be banked in advance and used when needed, said Aguirre, similar to a blood transfusion. Theyre also less expensive because of economies of scale”

Research by Capricor founder Dr. Eduardo Marbn discovered the heart contained cells with regenerative capacity.

“No one knew these existed, Aguirre said. Everyone thought the heart was an organ that couldnt repair itself. But it turns out that may be wrong, and that there are early progenitor types cells in the heart that may be effective.”

When injected into hearts, unlike embryonic stem cells which are expected to engraft into the target organ, these progenitor cells are expected to remain transiently in the heart but induce growth of new heart tissue which continues after they are no longer present.

We invite health consumers to participate in the AllStar trial please click here to see if you qualify.

If you believe you may qualify for the ALLSTAR trial, please call 217-492-9105.

The Prairie Heart Institute of Illinois (PHII) is a community-based network of hospitals that offer cardiovascular programs staffed by the nationally recognized Prairie Cardiovascular Consultants, the largest group of cardiologists in the tri-state region. Because of the Prairie Education and Research Consortium (PERC), network hospitals also have access to drugs and treatment not widely available. The network hospitals of PHII offer the highest level of cardiovascular care possible in their communities. When more specialized care is needed, it is available in Springfield, Belleville or Carbondale.

PERC was founded in 1983 to facilitate cardiovascular and vascular clinical research, thereby integrating state of the art medical science and bedside patient care. PERC has been instrumental in fostering collaborative efforts between physicians, medical industry, and the international clinical research community, as all parties work together to study the introduction of new pharmaceuticals, cardiovascular techniques and medical devices. Over the past two decades, the evolution of this important cooperative effort has been reflected in the growth of PERC to its present size.

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AR Stem Cell Therapy | Regenerative Medicine

Posted: December 30, 2016 at 12:42 am

Call and reserve a Mothers Day Discount on our Twilight Facial Regular price $1,500 Mothers Day price $1,097!

Leave a message (479) 657-6800 to claim your spot

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Join us

Thursday, May 8th at 7 pm

Do you suffer from Pain and Discomfort that affect your Daily Activities?




Sex Life

Or maybe youve heard about the amazing Anti-Aging results with the Twilight Facelift (the stem cell facial)

Come Learn how scientific discoveries have demonstrated that your OWN BODY produces millions of stem cells that can be used in treatments to promote collagen growth, repair tendon and ligament damage, rejuvenate skin erasing wrinkles, eliminating erectile dysfunction and even restoring hair growth in pattern baldness!

Discover how these advances can change your life, eliminate the need for painful surgery, help reduce medication reliance and much more!

Seats are free, but limited so call 800-365-5161 to reserve your seat.

Location: Project Fabulous 1400 SE Walton, Ste 28 Bentonville, AR 72712

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1400 SE Walton Suite 28 Bentonville, AR 72712


One of the most exciting emerging forms of regenerative medicinefor soft tissue injuries is Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) stem cell and growth factor therapy. PRP injections are an increasingly popular alternative to surgery and are getting great results for patients of all ages. The providers at Project Wellness have been practicing regenerative medicine for decades and together have helped Arkansas patients live pain-free. Whether you are an elite athlete or a Weekend Warriorif youre looking for a nonsurgical way to manage and eliminate your back, neck, joint or other pain, call Project Wellness at (479) 657-6800 today!

Are You a Candidate?

No matter your age, activity level or condition, no one should have to live with pain. At Project Wellness, weve used PRP to treat people in all phases of life, including:

PRP therapy can be used to treat a variety of acute and chronic injuries, including but not limited to:

Find out if PRP is right for you call today (479)657-6800!

What is Platelet Rich Plasma Therapy?

Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) therapy is a safe, effective and all natural way to heal damaged joints and soft tissue in order to alleviate chronic pain. PRP consists of a small sample of your own blood, spun in a centrifuge to concentrate the platelets and then injected into the injured area.

PRP has been used for over 20 yearsin numerous surgical fields to enhance bone grafting, accelerate wound healing and reduce the risk of infection after surgery. Medical research and intensive studies are leading the way to the tremendous benefits offered by PRP for joint pain, soft tissue injuries, low back disc degeneration, and arthritis, with the goal of enhancing the bodys ability to naturally heal itself.

Our specialists can determine if PRPis an appropriate option. Give us a call today to schedule an initial consultation or learn more.

How PRP Therapy Can Help

When tissue injury occurs, platelets collect at the site and begin to repair it. By concentrating these platelets and administering them straight into the injury site, we can deliver a powerful mixture of growth factors exactly where you need it, dramatically enhancing your bodys natural healing process. This treatment may lead to a more rapid, more efficient, and more thorough restoration of the tissue to a healthy state.

The PRP injection is very safe at most, you may experience very mild pain, stiffness or swelling. While any medical procedure carries a small risk of infection, since youre using your own blood this risk is minimal.

The procedure takes approximately one to two hours, including preparation and recovery time. Performed safely in a medical office, PRP therapy relieves pain without the risks of surgery, general anesthesia, or hospital stays and without a prolonged recovery. In fact, most people return to their jobs or usual activities right after the procedure.

Some patients report swelling and stiffness or mild to moderate discomfort lasting a few hours after the injection. This is a normal response and is a sign that the treatment is working. Over time, the affected area will begin to heal and strengthen and you will experience considerably less pain.

Regenerative medicine is not a quick fix and is designed to promote long-term healing of the injured tissue. While most patients require only one injection, the regeneration of collagen takes 4-6 months and may require multiple injections. Pain and functional recovery will be assessed 2-3 weeks after the injection to determine further therapy needs. The total number of treatments you will need depends on your age, the area being treated and the amount of pain you were experiencing before starting therapy.

While PRP has helped thousands of patients over the years, it is still relatively new and as a result is not yet covered by many insurance plans. However, some parts of the treatment may be covered. Since the cost for and types of treatment required varies significantly from patient to patient, we will provide you with pricing info during your initial consultation, based on your specific needs and situation.

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Tallasee Dog Undergoes Stem Cell Procedure – Alabama News

Posted: at 12:41 am

Posted: Dec 22, 2016 6:17 PM CST

by Jalea Brooks

Weve seen medical advancements using stem cells in humans, but one Tallasee dog is reaping the benefits of a relatively new procedure using her own stem cells.

Dr. Michelle J Mitchell says were using the pets own adult stem cells and were giving them back to the pet in such a way as to elicit healing, promote healing, decrease pain, decrease inflammation, it actually has been shown to rebuild some cartilage in damaged joints, it is an amazing technology that has improved the quality of life in numerous pets.

Mitchell is one of 3 veterinarians in Alabama, that perform this stem cell therapy procedure. Katie is a 5-year-old Coon-hound Mix with severe hip dysplasia and premature degenerative joint disease, making her a perfect candidate for stem cell therapy.

Mitchell says that this pet has been suffering from a pretty significant amount of degenerative joint disease and pain for sometime and as you know there are medications we can use to increase their comfort but again its a progressive condition so therefore it just keeps doesnt do anything to heal it just manages the pain so theyre more comfortable

According to Mitchell, the procedure itself is relatively simple.

She explains were gonna be harvesting her stem cells from the fat, gonna go inside the abdomenthen were gonna mix those stems cells with her own platelet rich plasma and then were gonna inject it back onto her hips knees her shoulders and any site of energy.

She and her staff only operate on the pet for about 30 minutes and the longest part is processing the fat and extracting the stem cells to be injected, which can take about 4 hours.

She says that once those cells are in those joints, they start working immediately, any site of inflammation is a magnet for stem cells.

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Best Masters of Science (MScs) in Biotechnology 2017

Posted: December 27, 2016 at 2:41 pm

A Master of Science or MSc is a graduate degree with a focus in science, medicine, or engineering. The MSc in Biotechnology combines two of these disciplines, focusing on biology and chemistry along with principles of design and engineering.

Exactly what is an MSc in Biotechnology? The field of biotechnology uses living organisms to generate controlled processes or even final products. Students pursuing this degree learn about a wide range of topics. On the biological side, focuses may include genetics, microbiology, cellular biology, and biochemistry. On the design and engineering side, students may learn about subjects such as process design and genetic engineering. Some programs also allow students to focus on a subdiscipline, such as the role of bioengineering and bioscience in healthcare or food production.

This degree program prepares students for biotechnology careers by encompassing a broad range of subjects that many degree programs do not. Besides providing students with necessary knowledge, the degree coursework fosters problem solving and critical thinking skills that prepare students to take on various design and engineering challenges. Additionally, earning the degree can improve likelihood of employment as science and engineering employers often prefer candidates with graduate degrees.

The cost of a masters degree program can vary significantly, depending on the educational institution, region, and country. Anyone who is considering pursuing a Master of Science should compare various options to find a program that is financially reasonable.

Someone who has earned the MSc in Biotechnology can work in research or development in a variety of bioengineering fields. These include pharmaceutical or medical design, genetic engineering, biofuel production, and industrial biotechnology systems. Potential employers include universities, research institutions, and private companies.

Today, even advanced Master of Science degrees can be earned online. Online degrees can be a convenient option for people with busy schedules or limited access to in-person education. The online application process is streamlined, and learning about your potential options is easy. Search for your program below and contact directly the admissions office of the school of your choice by filling in the lead form.

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Biotechnology Journals | Open Access –

Posted: December 26, 2016 at 3:46 am

Journal of Biotechnology & Biomaterials is a peer reviewed journal which publishes high quality articles reporting original research, review, commentary, opinion, rapid communication, case report etc. on all aspects of Biotechnology and Biomaterials. Content areas include Plant/Animal/Microbial Biotechnology, Applied Biotechnology, Red/Medical Biotechnology, Green/Agricultural Biotechnology, Environmental Biotechnology, Blue/Marine Biotechnology, White/Industrial Biotechnology, Food Biotechnology, Orthopedic and Dental Biomaterials, Cardiovascular Biomaterials, Ophthalmologic Biomaterials, Bioelectrodes and Biosensors, Burn Dressings and Skin Substitutes, Sutures, Drug Delivery Systems etc. This Biotechnology Journal with highest impact factor offers Open Access option to meet the needs of authors and maximize article visibility.

The journal is an academic journal providing an opportunity to researchers and scientists to explore the advanced and latest research developments in the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology and medicine. The Journal of Biotechnology and Biomaterials is of highest standards in terms of quality and provides a collaborative open access platform to the scientists throughout the world in the field of Biotechnology and Biomaterials. Journal of Biotechnology and Biomaterials is a scholarly Open Access journal and aims to publish the most complete and reliable source of information on the advanced and very latest research topics.

The journal is using the Editorial Manager System for quality in the peer-review process. Editorial Manager System is an online submission and review system, where authors can submit manuscripts and track their progress. Reviewers can download manuscripts and submit their opinions. Editors can manage the whole submission, review, revise & publish process. Publishers can see what manuscripts are in the pipeline awaiting publication.

The Journal assures a 21 days rapid review process with international peer-review standards and with quality reviewers. E-mail is sent automatically to concerned persons when significant events occur. After publishing, articles are freely available through online without any restrictions or any other subscriptions to researchers worldwide.

Applied Biotechnology is gives the major opportunity to study science on the edge of technology, innovation and even science itself. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology focusses on prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells, relevant enzymes and proteins; applied genetics and molecular biotechnology; genomics and proteomics; applied microbial and cell physiology; environmental biotechnology; process and products and more.

Related Journals of Applied Biotechnology

Current Opinion in Biotechnology, Biotechnology Advances, Biotechnology for Biofuels, Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques, Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense, Molecular Biology, Biology and Medicine, Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology, Applied Mycology and Biotechnology, Asian Biotechnology and Development Review, Biotechnology applications Journals, Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Fundamental Materials.

Biomaterials are commonly used in various medical devices and systems such as drug delivery systems, hybrid organs, tissue cultures, synthetic skin, synthetic blood vessels, artificial hearts, screws, plates, cardiac pacemakers, wires and pins for bone treatments, total artificial joint implants, skull reconstruction, and dental and maxillofacial applications. Among various applications, the application of biomaterials in cardiovascular system is most significant. The use of cardiovascular biomaterials (CB) is subjected to its blood compatibility and its integration with the surrounding environment where it is implanted.

Related Journals of Cardiovascular biomaterials

Journal of Biomimetics Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Journal of Advanced Chemical Engineering, Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques, Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition, Journal of Biomaterials Applications, Trends in Biomaterials and Artificial Organs, International Journal of Biomaterials and Journal of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Cardiovascular biomaterials Journals.

Biomaterials are used daily in surgery, dental applications and drug delivery. Biomaterial implant is a construct with impregnated pharmaceutical products which can be placed into the body, that permits the prolonged release of a drug over an extended period of time. A biomaterial may also be an autograft, allograft or xenograft used as a transplant material.

Related journals of Biomaterial implants

Advanced Functional Materials, Biomaterials, Advanced healthcare materials, Journal of Biomimetics Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine, Journal of Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology, Clinical Oral Implants Research, International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants and Cochlear Implants International, Biomaterials Journals, Biomaterial implants Journals.

Animal Biotechnology covers the identification and manipulation of genes and their products, stressing applications in domesticated animals. Animals are used in many ways in biotechnology. Biotechnology provides new tools for improving human health and animal health and welfare and increasing livestock productivity. Biotechnology improves the food we eat – meat, milk and eggs. Biotechnology can improve an animals impact on the environment.

Related Journals of Animal biotechnology

Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques, Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine, Biology and Medicine, Journal of Advanced Chemical Engineering, Animal Biotechnology, African Journal of Biotechnology, Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Critical Reviews in Biotechnology and Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology, Asian Journal of Microbiology Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences.

A biomaterial is any surface, matter, or construct that interacts with biological systems. The biomaterial science is the study of biomaterials. Biomaterials science encloses elements of medicine, biology, chemistry, tissue engineering and materials science. Biomaterials derived from either nature or synthesized in the laboratory using a different typrs of chemicals utilizing metallic components, polymers, ceramics or composite materials. They are oftenly used for a medical application.

Related Journals of Biomaterials

Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Journal of Bioactive and Compatible Polymers, Journal of Tissue Engineering, Journal of Biomimetics Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense, Fermentation Technology, Journal of Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology, International Journal of Nano and Biomaterials, Journal of Biomimetics, Biomaterials, and Tissue Engineering, Journal of Applied Biomaterials and Fundamental Materials, Journal of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering and International Journal of Biomaterials.

Nanobiotechnology, nanobiology and bionanotechnology are terms that refer to the intersection of nanotechnology and biology. Bionanotechnology and nanobiotechnology serve as blanket terms for various related technologies. This discipline helps to indicate the merger of biological research with various fields of nanotechnology. Concepts enhanced through nanobiology are nanodevices, nanoparticles, and nanoscale phenomena. Nanotechnology uses biological systems as the biological inspirations.

Related Journals of Nano biotechnology

Biopolymers, Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques, Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense, Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine, Journal of Advanced Chemical Engineering, Journal of Nanobiotechnology, Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology, IET Nanobiotechnology and Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology, Australian journal of biotechnology, International Journal of Nano & Biomaterials, Nano biotechnology Journals.

Biocatalysis are used as natural catalysts, like protein enzymes, to perform chemical transformations on organic compounds. Both enzymes that have been more or less isolated and enzymes still residing inside living cells are employed for this task. Since biocatalysis deals with enzymes and microorganisms, it is historically classified separately from “homogeneous catalysis” and “heterogeneous catalysis”. However, biocatalysis is simply a heterogeneous catalysis.

Related Journals of Biocatalysis

Biology and Medicine, Fermentation Technology, Journal of Advanced Chemical Engineering, Biocatalysis and Biotransformation and Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology.

Agricultural biotechnology is a collection of scientific techniques used to improve plants, animals and microorganisms. Based on an structure and characteristics of DNA, scientists have developed solutions to increase agricultural productivity. Scientists have learned how to move genes from one organism to another. This has been called genetic modification (GM), genetic engineering (GE) or genetic improvement (GI). Regardless of the name, the process allows the transfer of useful characteristics (such as resistance to a disease) into a plant, animal or microorganism by inserting genes from another organism.

Related Journals of Agricultural biotechnology

Journal of Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology, Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine, Molecular Biology, Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques, Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology and Chinese Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology, Plant Biotechnology Journal, Plant Biotechnology Journals.

A biomolecule is any molecule which is present in living organisms, entails large macromolecules like proteins, lipids, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids, as well as small molecules include primary metabolites, secondary metabolites, and natural products. A common name for this class of material is biological materials. Nucleosides are molecules formed by attaching a nucleobase to a ribose or deoxyribose ring. Nucleosides can be phosphorylated by specific kinases in the cell, producing nucleotides.

Related Journals of Bio-molecules

Molecular Biology, Biology and Medicine, Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine, Journal of Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology, Biomolecules and Therapeutics, Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology – Part B Molecular Biotechnology, Asia-Pacific Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Bio-molecules Journals.

In developing countries, application of biotechnology to food processing is an issue of argument and discussions for a long time. Biotechnological study focuse development and improvement of customary fermentation processes. The application of Biotechnology to solve the environmental problems in the environment and in the ecosystems is called Environmental Biotechnology. It is applied and used to study the natural environment.

Related Journals of Biotechnology applications

NatureBiotechnology, Trends inBiotechnology, MetabolicEngineering, Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques,Journal of Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology, Journal ofAdvanced Chemical Engineering, Applied Microbiology andBiotechnology, Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology – PartA Enzyme Engineering and Biotechnology, Biotechnology and AppliedBiochemistry, Applied Biotechnology Journals, Applied Microbiologyand Biotechnology, Systems and Synthetic Biology and IET SyntheticBiology.

Industrial or white biotechnology uses enzymes and micro-organisms to make biobased products in sectors like chemicals, food and feed, detergents, paper and pulp, textiles and bioenergy (such as biofuels or biogas). It uses renewable raw materials and is one of the most promising, newest approaches towards lowering greenhouse gas emissions. Industrial biotechnology application has been proven to make significant contributions towards mitigating the impacts of climate change in these and other sectors.

Related Journals of White/industrial biotechnology

Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Microbial Biotechnology, Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques, Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense, Fermentation Technology, Molecular Biology, Journal of Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology, Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine, Chemical Sciences Journal, Industrial Biotechnology and Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, White/industrial biotechnology Journals.

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