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Northern Colorado Doctor Researching New Treatment Options … – Benzinga

Posted: March 25, 2017 at 7:44 pm

Dr. Kenneth Pettine, a board-certified retired Orthopedic Surgeon in Northern Colorado, is researching new methods of treating back pain due to degenerative discs through the use of mesenchymal stem cell therapy. Patients with three or more degenerative discs are traditionally left with palliative options such as medication, but Dr. Pettine’s research reveals that patients who received stem cell therapy reported better results than those who underwent surgical procedures.

(PRWEB) March 20, 2017

Northern Colorado residents suffering from back pain due to degenerative discs may soon have new treatment options. Dr. Kenneth Pettine, founder of The Rocky Mountain Associates in Orthopedic Medicine, has been researching the use of mesenchymal stem cells to alleviate back pain, reduce swelling, and give patients relief without the use of surgery.

“Back pain is the second most common reason for physician visits in the United States and the most common cause of missed work,” said Dr. Pettine. “The consensus among spine surgeons is patients with more than two segments of discogenic back pain have no surgical options and poor prognosis. This mesenchymal stem cell therapy could change that.”

Dr. Pettine has been researching the use of mesenchymal stem cells in back pain treatment for years and has been releasing exciting findings about the potential relief for back pain sufferers. Mesenchymal are one type of stem cell and are responsible for modulating the immune system, has anti-inflammatory properties, and is the main cell that’s responsible for helping the body recover from back and neck injuries. It can also help treat degenerative disc diseases, which is central to Dr. Pettine’s research.

In recently released research, Dr. Pettine tested mesenchymal stem cell therapy by injecting 146 patients suffering from back pain originating in three or more discs. He concluded that that the results are superior to those reported for surgery done on one or two discs. The patients getting the treatment reported better improvement in their condition and had fewer complications versus surgical patients.

“The economic and emotional impact of chronic low back pain on both society and the individual patient is significant,” said Dr. Pettine. “Many of these patients are unable to work due to their condition and treatment can cost millions of dollars over a lifetime. This new therapy could be a new option for them that promises better results and greater recovery.

If you are interested in learning more about Dr. Pettine’s research about mesenchymal stem cells to treat degenerative back pain, you can visit his website for more information.

About Dr. Kenneth Pettine Dr. Pettine has been the principal author of 18 FTA studies with Biologics and non-fusion implants and is considered a pioneer in the field. He founded The Rocky Mountain Associates in Orthopedic Medicine in 1991 to offer patients a non-fusion surgical option for their neck and back pain. He co-invented the FDA-approved Prestige cervical artificial disc and the Maverick Artificial Disc. He is currently focused on the use of Mesenchymal stem cell therapy. You can learn more about the therapy and Dr. Pettine at his website,

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Northern Colorado Doctor Researching New Treatment Options … – Benzinga

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Bradfo Sho, Ep. 19: Being Drew Pomeranz –

Posted: at 7:44 pm

Add road show. That’s my open definitely probably would have brought that’s my old. Query where you don’t know what you’re stupid. Brad broad show. That’s delicious. Another addition of Brad show up here with a third base coach or infield instructor. Patriots. Number one fan Brian Butterfield and I was thinking of who would be the next person I’m on the preferential podcasts and I know that water your decision making and your instincts are probably at this point Keener than anybody. So what who who would you like to see. On this part with a I think it would be droop over its without ego oh you’re your wishes are net. Making its first appearance on the right foot so that means for teacher congratulations drew Palmer and here at jetBlue park drew gradually since not only be in the podcast but being married this offseason. Think it is a big big off season for me. This is this is an every offseason where you get married. You go to Australia aren’t being briefed on truly private islands off ostrich. The a lot of fun in married and in a couple different spots in Austria lost because of so. Take me through the end of the ads starting at the end of the season you have. You you pitch in the playoffs you’ve thrown only six miles an hour you get married you go to Australia. Com is that it was it in and all the sudden you have a stem cell watch yet the stem cell injection before you got married right. Today. Done matches season and then decides them. Knowing that some relaxing time coming out of his deputies here a couple of months after there is no better. Wedding present that happening themselves successor immediately after. The playoffs where you knew that you were gonna get this stem cell injection. And take me through if you can’t get we’ve talked a lot about the process he took. To heal your elbow. Take me through that decision was made in September and then. These him to do this in October. And then I’m gonna go to Australia. We again talked about it towards the end of the year. So definitely do a few years to oh. The partners in recovery for the next season knowing that I had some you know the doctors had to take some time off and lots and like on. I developed and lights anyways those as the perfect situation for and I know we’ve talked about this before but we haven’t talked about it here. Why stem cell why not PRP played in platelet rich plasma which is usually the way it the last few years anyway. That’s the way a lot of guys are gone when the instead of having surgery. To heal your Opel wise and so. It’s this Intel’s previous month. More experimentally colleges because the yet to use like those who are harder begin. If that take him out of the body in my own body and my case. That your hip yeah from about them. Big hit bone in my become lower back area they journal on there and extracted it and spun it kind of the same as Pierre. And and then just then injected it into the clincher. Again this is not on something you know enough to worry about getting married you have to grow in your you have to take your mind off giving the China patterns in the and they in the guest list and everything. Yeah. I didn’t have much to do and in my life my elected miss the planning so just. And zipped off to LA for a couple days had it done and then came right back in the mean you know their radio get married. That’s weird that’s like when when you my wife asked me when viewing induce the child before your house or after you run the marathon. So today her how long did it hurts or when you’re when you’re exchanging vows to do you feel your elbow healing or did it was it’s still a little bit in pain or how does that. Happened so little. It was two Bennett and it was it was so little sore for awhile after. You know I guess that’s part of the healing process. I felt that. You know for about 22. And a half months after that prime pro about two months after that after had a done and then from there to kind of progressively get better. So when was the moment where you said this works this feels like it actually work. When a first it’s Roland. You know I was still little soreness from. You know all the dealing going on there probably use this kind of tightness from from resting. What’s got their own throwing very passively in the beginning just to see in my arm movement and get things on for a really started you know thrown the ball put some force effort into it. Probably. Had a it. It’s sort of film way better we’ll probably take two weeks ago to be honest. They say it takes about three months anyway it’s three months wouldn’t let me like. I guess late. January sometime and then affiliate hit a few different points where it’s gotten better and kind of broke through and got better better. And right now it’s pretty. So two weeks ago you said it’s a return wasn’t in the bullpen wasn’t just throwing wasn’t like oh my goodness. This feels a lot better than that hasn’t long long time the out of a fierce and from where everything feels maybe everything’s just tell us you know all that stem cells that are. That it just feel a little tighter rules. A little stiff. We’ve been doing our normal treatment just kind of loose and stretch him. Loan sizes. And I don’t know I threw he tacked on Monday Croats play catch and it just felt better so I don’t know if against them good blood flow in and broker giving up through. It was effectively use difference to review some stem cells about five different types of spring training. When did you feel the worst last year so obviously when you go down this road. They had to fell in and when you were moved to the bullpen the end of the year there was a reason why you word in jeweler drawn back when did it. When did a start hurting and be really feel like no this isn’t good. Who’s got an ongoing thing for her. Probably over half the year she says everyone knows something you know and in on my mind there was anything those nonstop mail us here seven best years ever it’s you know my career was clear on things now. You know it’s just one of those things you got to figure out how to make work go off there and you know feel good enough team did its job done every once or five days that’s a lot of pressure though I mean just because you make the all star team you get traded. You come to a new team and anybody can Boston in the middle pennant races. This is a lot of pressure than there was then having to deal with that must’ve been pulled onto yeah I mean. Like instead everyone’s deal with something and in. You know. And most the time where they’ll where the ones that know what’s going on you know wherever it’s no no announcement and knows what we’re doing when. Like I said I just you know our. Come on mine right to pitch every five days and you know it was recovered enough to to feel good enough to pitch every five days and go out there. And that still feel good. It can be tough it’s it’s you know. It’s in the dailies in itself it’s tough enough where especially when you things going on but he just can’t stay focused and not let any you know anything. You think you know yourself so you have to stay within yourself. Dude you know you’re capable of doing and step and not worry about the rest of any point in the resides in the uterus is uniform and when you came over did you feel. As good as you did. When you were cruising to the Ulster mean. You know I know listen I know you were her I you know making excuses this is degree in farther in this question goes to the reality of looking back at last. The I don’t know some players said it was an ongoing issue for. A lot of most of the year so. I don’t members you know. My thoughts up to display a fill up an announcement did then but also threw a lot of things and you know whatever about a foot feels strong right now. And right now it’s just me feed my you know find in my delivery none of them driving the ball and you know after that. Breakthrough couple weeks ago. And this. You know trying to trying to you know get my rhythm down through them. Key for me that’s the thing you do you go through all of that into as you said two weeks ago. On the triceps thing aside as we see here right now you must have some sense of gratification. Thing what I did and worked back in terms of how it feels. And does it feel like you did like to say at this time last year because I would imagine you felt OK last year this time. I feel great and I’m lost here you know as the situation. Had thrown a lot for him came in spring training because it’s. I was going until went starters job but this year I had to take it easier and you know. Counted. You know let that come to nothing you know since I’ve come always every bearer of the events already come and then I’ve never had to do this before some kind of some of the things that I had to figure out before I get spring training room figure experience. If anything so that’s the that’s another. You know obstacle itself. In from here and like I say title goes along with last year and I. Thought there and pitch now and I’m not too much focus on results I am mean. You know no one’s okay with going out there it’s about spring training volunteers you know. What they tell you but. You wanna do we should also understand where you’re at in the process and if you know if it was just yeah if I gave up five runs. It felt good and it was a step up for a figure something out that’s a win for spring training is and I think if you’re out there. It’s giving unit itself to run you know what it’s going on that’s not. But that’s not a woman in profits that that’s not a good thing did you did you sense or ruin freaked out the other day. Probably you know I’d. And you know I it’s and I tried to make a point to say you know I I don’t think he was inning serious you know it’s. This does that still part of me trying to find my mechanics down and find some inputs and a lot of effort into throwing. Really driving the ball of the played. It’s just you know I was searching for that feeling in morrow mr. Graham I’m a little bit and that’s. You know you’re gonna feel stuff when your buddies in the wrong position especially when you get out of slot sort of put pressure on. Others your body. Wasn’t that wasn’t a big deal something and I went watch video of that night and next day and fear level is on. Takes effect today and yet been perfected the next day of figured out what I need to do announced it’s not repeat that. Was a human nature because you know you don’t know like if ones connected to the other and everything else 41 sack him feeling days. I don’t want any sort of hiccups. Use something I knew wasn’t related to the other so it’s kind of Ali’s. It was more frustrating for me because. You know everything that I did last year felt great you know everything I did you know took care of assaults is it felt great. And it was just another you know finally we think those two minutes this this is like insists that annoying little thing. You know what if the next morning and I didn’t feel anything resting so wasn’t like I was throbbing son knows this little thing that. So that I felt much support mama behind my body. And so I was really worried about it’s. You know this is probably good thing crummy me in there and what the heck was going on and I kind of honed in on one. That some of the things and delivered in the it to him to polish. The one thing I think last year where you take away from last year there’s confidence there’s unity we’ve talked before about. Getting a chance probably getting your chance to start. Coming getting them making the most of that opportunity. Making the all star team and if I would imagine for you it’s just about oh. I did this I proved they can do this in the major leagues it doesn’t matter what part what division one league. If I’m healthy I can do this is that is that something that you having your back pocket that maybe you hadn’t had your back pocket for his entire career. It’s instant play nice. They years to think about but at the same time not she was last year and this year I need to focus on doing my job. Every time out like I did luster. Could duo. Draw on the past too much you know really. That does nothing Bashir. You know why go there and get shelled for five things and thank you would think that less here the other guy who gives a (%expletive) you know service. It’s just the way goes. I you if you think about it you you try and take your pick was. What was what made me do well let’s hearing panel ruled that over trying to roll that over into this year antenna can pick up where you left off and continued that on throughout the season. But did it’s it’s useful which can’t you can’t rely on the. It’s you noted this is a thing is that when we look at this rotation. For Salem. David Price and the Cy Young award winner. Stephen Wright you all started at water re use you know great stuff for most it’s a no hitter in all star in all star troops farmer. Then and this is I would imagine that one of the next up for you is being. Not helping people remind people all star drew pom rants is just being lumped in with the other guy com. You know it’s it’s. Great to be around those yeah it’s. You know I mean this account learn from. You know the way they go about things everyday on their bus some. On and off the field there and here. Take care what they need to take care very thing you learn from being being this spring training him. Maybe there’s learned so from the U I don’t know by presenting you the picked up because these are pretty. Accomplished. Today kiss. It’s more their preparation known you know Billy guys’ preparations they have they have the preparations. To go into each start they know they wanna do it and make an excuse that’s what makes them leave you know I. Sometimes do you know smeared anyone can agree on profanity dismiss this they give this guy out he knew how to get her gal but if you can’t excuses that you’re not going to be. Successful those guys are really good at that the sitting down on paper this this I know how to get this guy out this guy out this guy out they go out there and do it and you know we’re gonna great position every time out. Yeah let’s say it’s not a lot of guys can do that some guys even going like going off scouting report trade via you know. And it knowing what’s your round a little while yeah it’s you remember how. And you start to learn how to get guys out there and you know when you’re on even longer hitter knows we’re trying to do it and it’s about executioner. You know you can. Maybe maybe not execution and notes you’re trying to do any message you get amount that’s just based on notes that’s. If that a definite thing you know they’re the best game plan world. And executed. And still you have to Iran’s analysis that way you know sometimes you don’t you retire by human nature and human nature about the about wanting to impress coming to Boston and all that. The fire was rated one of the things that from my humiliation would be following the guy who has traded lower. Have you Google leaders just in Mosul and now on the ice ice I still follow. Him on the on Twitter you ought. Then at five team for five teens now so I’ve followed the suppose and that’s what are some things that I see your stuff that pops up because it’s you know. And treated three cup four times and there it is so. He’s Celsius guys via trade or have popped up and you panel don’t look around now I don’t know with this situation has. In niners get pictures we have a give me the power rank of guys who treated for our youth who loses and who are some of the guys these that we know Anderson Espinoza last year. Anniversary goes straight to you bother menace from Colorado. And then I think I’m ready for Brett Anderson. And then. Oh and then Yonder Alonso was San Diego. It’s news that first time your traded which was the ball little mantra remember that that was a big deal because a Red Sox are actually. There was some thought that they might try to trade for menace and the union stepped and when the when that first happened was it was at the shark tournament was that night and day compared to when you retreated last year because he had gone through it. Yeah now’s a crazy actually. I was in Dublin after I was warming up for the gained house fits in and night. And you know it’s the gains in ten minutes on the out compliments you know. From being ready to go in the game and its phone rings the bullpen then coached like they. You’d then take it and went with ten minutes before the game starts some walking across the field in some earlier starts throne warm up. I’m walking across to some homeless for decades centuries it’s a missed. I just slow again remember the slow walk across the whole field stadiums full everyone’s aaron’s time thinking like. What the hell does this mean Mike what’s going on that first year playing. I I didn’t really it was crazy knows crazy so that the first your first professional years. That was my first year Provo 2011 for sites get adjusted to those and Simon did play. And then those efforts you’re playing well. On 31 against a fuel it forever ago that does lots of squeeze them between NC times there between that first one. Filling us ten minutes when he hears film also. Very rich and it was there a time in that time because you had just sort of morphed into were reliever was ever a time. Where you felt like I’m not gonna get my chance to do what you end up doing last year. I didn’t you know. I’d bounce around them. You know idol always known I could be a good starter. And you’re not always Clinton situation I didn’t really have choice and fifty mile from the bullpen. Our bullpen was doing very well and I got a heard ninja who is there wasn’t really. You know. They didn’t raises a demotion for his yes we need help down there and we think you can do it didn’t move it much here. You know. Do you wanna do you wanna be the guy down there so I went down both men’s. Pretty much. The first guy out every you know there’s so if I was up that day and some snow on on boom Europe the matter when it was seventh 89 whatever. I was. But I I always in my head you know I always news that. I can be successful. As the star and decide to figure out how to get myself back there and kind of simplifies things. Just consume my mind all. On base audiences on my own time anyway offseason doesn’t matter they united you know that’s that’s all I think about this ways to improve. It was always an honor because you know else you know if yes shouldn’t be the best. Anywhere than you know and you lose your edge. Live with the so if that’s the case then last argues in September and October. Must’ve been a complete mind you know why. Right I mean if if you’re seeing there. They are in the ceiling thinking about baseball typically then when you’re thinking about my elbow I think and about impressing people in Boston with a lot of generates that must have been. Like how I don’t I can’t imagine them. I was autos a lot like going on. I had some good games in there it’s bagged games he nearly you can expect to be perfect every time mountain discount. It’s part of us to this offseason time. Don’t think about like whoa what was different between when I got traded on the games that I didn’t do very rural. You know I mean I think there’s there’s a few things. Just execution wise sewer by playing going into the gains did a little different. You know supposedly stuff going on to its does that and to be you know it’s going to be like it’s right in a can have a you know it’s not going to be in no pressure situation ever you know baseball is always. You know in a position to get out of things that. We’ve just got to slow the game down and the biggest thing I’m the tart brokerage and Boston and president is that if you had to look back and everything. And where the world when they went through last year is that just something as simple as this is slow everything down. Is that one of the biggest things where you said media didn’t do that it’s much issue and it’s a big fan I think it. I just went a different direction and some of the things that may be good. You know a syndicate curve ball. Good. You know good forcing fastball. I didn’t I don’t think it through my two seamer it suited to some changes in their couple games that begin. You know it’s it’s I had a really good. You know game playing going and saying most of us that game to San Diego I had some bad means obviously. You’re gonna have ups and downs of offseason. And video search teams are more times and but. In had a lot of good games you know I think you learn a line about. It’s you know me sometimes you have some good gains from new going to connect Augustus and then. Doesn’t go away one what the hell happened city cast analyzed. You know you know. He goes a little fuel to be going in today those little aggressive for me stand back when I don’t say about him in trouble. And when I feel good offensive jam him at the front. And Carolina did there is a guy I realize that can. That’s recess this. It slowed it down a little bit you know the law came comeback album is suffering is to stay back tonight some Ford when you have. I don’t know when you can win but friendly parcel will be different industrial park the FBI wouldn’t say that it was you know. Too much pitching there it was different you know as a a lot more innings and me. You know you know whatever it is seen on a hike is on the line can’t find one specific thing wide I didn’t you know. It’s like I would have liked to. But it’s a different league to increase in the studio and it’s a fix it and certainly to. That right now. Do. It’s. Excited about a person all the that’s the thing is who finally due to wrap things up present as you see here right now all of this you’ve come through all of this. And here you are you’re sitting here as perceived as the pitcher who’s gonna silence of the rotation. Who is going to be the guy that they traded for him and you can feel. Confident that you don’t have all the stuff that’s going on last year yeah I think confidence is the you know if they can definitely make things a lot more. A lot more complicated deal with them and there’s all these other things behind the scenes are Dilma. A feel good this year and didn’t you know unsolicited and get them work on things alone like too because I had been. Because of the shorter thrown for and I had. You know didn’t get to throw off and on anything before I came here but you know it’s at the challenge and welcome challenge you know it’s it’s another you know it. When you there’s nothing challenging it’s a little boring you know and so I’m I’m excited to. Figured out these next film segment cited an excellent tomorrow and then you know I I normally don’t. Answering fan only gets trying to pull together in the last of sorts anyway. Is kind of it over the new games gains gains. It’s kind of bring in the other for the season. Not too far away drew thanks so much and and good luck and it’s it’s it’s been. It’s been a crazy couple months but things seemed to be settling down and now we can focus on 2200. That’s.

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Bradfo Sho, Ep. 19: Being Drew Pomeranz –

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Lactate May Drive Cancer Development | Anti … – Anti Aging News

Posted: at 7:44 pm

Posted on March 24, 2017, 6 a.m. in Cancer Exercise

New study reveals that lactate, a molecule produced during intense exercise, plays a key role in cancer cell formation.

Medical researchers are on a quest to develop a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism that causes the process in which cells become cancerous. This process is known as oncogenesis. A recent study keys in on the molecule generated amidst intense exercise known as lactate. The purpose of this research is to explain lactate’s role in the creation of cancer cells. The latest study’s findings were published in the popular journal Carcinogenesis. About Lactate

Lactate is the byproduct of glycolysis, a chemical process that breaks apart sugar into smaller molecular components with the ultimate aim of generating energy. Lactate builds up in the blood and tissues when one engages in intense physical activity. If enough lactate accumulates, it can cause diminished physical performance as well as muscle tightness.

A famous German scientist named Otto Warburg first noticed that cancer cells consume an abundance of glucose compared to regular cells. Known as the Warburg effect, this phenomenon is a reference to the fact that cancer cells proceed through more glycolysis and generate more lactate than regular cells. The Latest Research

New research on this subject matter has been spearheaded by the director of the Sports Performance Department and physiology laboratory at the University of Colorado-Boulder’s Sports Medicine and Performance Center. The director, Inigo San Millan, was determined to figure out why the Warburg effect occurs. Cancer research has deviated from cell metabolism study to genetics since Warburg’s heyday in the early 20th century. However, the latest research might shift the spotlight back to lactate’s role in the context of cancer development. Lactate and Oncogenesis

San Millan’s research team suggests that lactate is the sole metabolic compound necessary and involved in the nearly half-dozen stages that stem from carcinogenesis. Their study analyzed the role of lactate in the process through which new blood vessels develop within tumors. This medical term for this process is angiogenesis. The study also examined the role of lactate in immune escape. This term refers to the cancer cells’ eluding of the human body’s natural immune responses. It also delves into the role of lactate in cell migration, self-sufficient metabolism, and metastasis.

San Millan’s paper details how lactate assists in the creation of an acidic microenvironment outside of the cancer cell during metastasis. This phenomenon triggers the spread of additional cancer cells. The study also explores the connection between genetic components and lactate. The research team hypothesized that three transcription factors (p53, cMYC and HIF-1) common in the majority of cancers catalyze the deregulation of lactate. Can Halting Lactate Stop Cancer?

The important role of lactate in cancer cell creation helps explain why people who exercise on a regular basis have a low risk of cancer development. Individuals who exercise enjoy a body that is trained to transfer lactate to an energy source for the body, preventing an excessive accumulation of the metabolic compound. The findings allow for speculation that an idle lifestyle combined with an excessive consumption of sugar might lead to an abundance of lactate that leads to cancer. These findings show that lactate is not only present when cancer develops but required for each step of its development. What’s Next?

San Millan hopes to team up with the University of Colorado Hospital to analyze the effects of custom tailored physical fitness programs created for cancer patients. At the moment, San Millan is studying the nuances of breast cancer cell lines. His hope is that additional research will ameliorate the quest to develop drugs that prevent the accumulation of lactate. These drugs will likely help key in on monocarboxylate transporters that transmit lactate between the body’s cells.

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Embryonic stem cell – Wikipedia

Posted: at 7:44 pm

Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) are pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an early-stage preimplantation embryo.[1][2] Human embryos reach the blastocyst stage 45 days post fertilization, at which time they consist of 50150 cells. Isolating the embryoblast or inner cell mass (ICM) results in destruction of the blastocyst, which raises ethical issues, including whether or not embryos at the pre-implantation stage should be considered to have the same moral or legal status as more developed human beings.[3][4]

Human ES cells measure approximately 14 m while mouse ES cells are closer to 8 m.[5]

Embryonic stem cells, derived from the blastocyst stage early mammalian embryos, are distinguished by their ability to differentiate into any cell type and by their ability to propagate. Embryonic stem cell’s properties include having a normal karyotype, maintaining high telomerase activity, and exhibiting remarkable long-term proliferative potential.[6]

Embryonic stem cells of the inner cell mass are pluripotent, that is, they are able to differentiate to generate primitive ectoderm, which ultimately differentiates during gastrulation into all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. These include each of the more than 220 cell types in the adult body. Pluripotency distinguishes embryonic stem cells from adult stem cells found in adults; while embryonic stem cells can generate all cell types in the body, adult stem cells are multipotent and can produce only a limited number of cell types. If the pluripotent differentiation potential of embryonic stem cells could be harnessed in vitro, it might be a means of deriving cell or tissue types virtually to order. This would provide a radical new treatment approach to a wide variety of conditions where age, disease, or trauma has led to tissue damage or dysfunction.

Additionally, under defined conditions, embryonic stem cells are capable of propagating themselves indefinitely in an undifferentiated state and have the capacity when provided with the appropriate signals to differentiate, presumably via the formation of precursor cells, to almost all mature cell phenotypes.[7] This allows embryonic stem cells to be employed as useful tools for both research and regenerative medicine, because they can produce limitless numbers of themselves for continued research or clinical use.

Because of their plasticity and potentially unlimited capacity for self-renewal, embryonic stem cell therapies have been proposed for regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after injury or disease. Diseases that could potentially be treated by pluripotent stem cells include a number of blood and immune-system related genetic diseases, cancers, and disorders; juvenile diabetes; Parkinson’s disease; blindness and spinal cord injuries. Besides the ethical concerns of stem cell therapy (see stem cell controversy), there is a technical problem of graft-versus-host disease associated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation. However, these problems associated with histocompatibility may be solved using autologous donor adult stem cells, therapeutic cloning. Stem cell banks or more recently by reprogramming of somatic cells with defined factors (e.g. induced pluripotent stem cells). Embryonic stem cells provide hope that it will be possible to overcome the problems of donor tissue shortage and also, by making the cells immunocompatible with the recipient. Other potential uses of embryonic stem cells include investigation of early human development, study of genetic disease and as in vitro systems for toxicology testing.[6]

According to a 2002 article in PNAS, “Human embryonic stem cells have the potential to differentiate into various cell types, and, thus, may be useful as a source of cells for transplantation or tissue engineering.”[8]

Current research focuses on differentiating ES into a variety of cell types for eventual use as cell replacement therapies (CRTs). Some of the cell types that have or are currently being developed include cardiomyocytes (CM), neurons, hepatocytes, bone marrow cells, islet cells and endothelial cells.[9] However, the derivation of such cell types from ESs is not without obstacles and hence current research is focused on overcoming these barriers. For example, studies are underway to differentiate ES in to tissue specific CMs and to eradicate their immature properties that distinguish them from adult CMs.[10]

Besides in the future becoming an important alternative to organ transplants, ES are also being used in field of toxicology and as cellular screens to uncover new chemical entities (NCEs) that can be developed as small molecule drugs. Studies have shown that cardiomyocytes derived from ES are validated in vitro models to test drug responses and predict toxicity profiles.[9] ES derived cardiomyocytes have been shown to respond to pharmacological stimuli and hence can be used to assess cardiotoxicity like Torsades de Pointes.[11]

ES-derived hepatocytes are also useful models that could be used in the preclinical stages of drug discovery. However, the development of hepatocytes from ES has proven to be challenging and this hinders the ability to test drug metabolism. Therefore, current research is focusing on establishing fully functional ES-derived hepatocytes with stable phase I and II enzyme activity.[12]

Researchers have also differentiated ES into dopamine-producing cells with the hope that these neurons could be used in the treatment of Parkinsons disease.[13][14] Recently, the development of ESC after Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) of Olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC’s) to a healthy Oocyte has been recommended for Neuro-degenerative diseases.[15] ESs have also been differentiated to natural killer (NK) cells and bone tissue.[16] Studies involving ES are also underway to provide an alternative treatment for diabetes. For example, DAmour et al. were able to differentiate ES into insulin producing cells[17] and researchers at Harvard University were able to produce large quantities of pancreatic beta cells from ES.[18]

Several new studies have started to address this issue. This has been done either by genetically manipulating the cells, or more recently by deriving diseased cell lines identified by prenatal genetic diagnosis (PGD). This approach may very well prove invaluable at studying disorders such as Fragile-X syndrome, Cystic fibrosis, and other genetic maladies that have no reliable model system.

Yury Verlinsky, a Russian-American medical researcher who specialized in embryo and cellular genetics (genetic cytology), developed prenatal diagnosis testing methods to determine genetic and chromosomal disorders a month and a half earlier than standard amniocentesis. The techniques are now used by many pregnant women and prospective parents, especially those couples with a history of genetic abnormalities or where the woman is over the age of 35, when the risk of genetically related disorders is higher. In addition, by allowing parents to select an embryo without genetic disorders, they have the potential of saving the lives of siblings that already had similar disorders and diseases using cells from the disease free offspring.[19]

Scientists have discovered a new technique for deriving human embryonic stem cell (ESC). Normal ESC lines from different sources of embryonic material including morula and whole blastocysts have been established. These findings allows researchers to construct ESC lines from embryos that acquire different genetic abnormalities; therefore, allowing for recognition of mechanisms in the molecular level that are possibly blocked that could impede the disease progression. The ESC lines originating from embryos with genetic and chromosomal abnormalities provide the data necessary to understand the pathways of genetic defects.[20]

A donor patient acquires one defective gene copy and one normal, and only one of these two copies is used for reproduction. By selecting egg cell derived from embryonic stem cells that have two normal copies, researchers can find variety of treatments for various diseases. To test this theory Dr. McLaughlin and several of his colleagues looked at whether parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells can be used in a mouse model that has thalassemia intermedia. This disease is described as an inherited blood disorder in which there is a lack of hemoglobin leading to anemia. The mouse model used, had one defective gene copy. Embryonic stem cells from an unfertilized egg of the diseased mice were gathered and those stem cells that contained only healthy hemoglobin genes were identified. The healthy embryonic stem cell lines were then converted into cells transplanted into the carrier mice. After five weeks, the test results from the transplant illustrated that these carrier mice now had a normal blood cell count and hemoglobin levels.[21]

Differentiated somatic cells and ES cells use different strategies for dealing with DNA damage. For instance, human foreskin fibroblasts, one type of somatic cell, use non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), an error prone DNA repair process, as the primary pathway for repairing double-strand breaks (DSBs) during all cell cycle stages.[22] Because of its error-prone nature, NHEJ tends to produce mutations in a cells clonal descendants.

ES cells use a different strategy to deal with DSBs.[23] Because ES cells give rise to all of the cell types of an organism including the cells of the germ line, mutations arising in ES cells due to faulty DNA repair are a more serious problem than in differentiated somatic cells. Consequently, robust mechanisms are needed in ES cells to repair DNA damages accurately, and if repair fails, to remove those cells with un-repaired DNA damages. Thus, mouse ES cells predominantly use high fidelity homologous recombinational repair (HRR) to repair DSBs.[23] This type of repair depends on the interaction of the two sister chromosomes formed during S phase and present together during the G2 phase of the cell cycle. HRR can accurately repair DSBs in one sister chromosome by using intact information from the other sister chromosome. Cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle (i.e. after metaphase/cell division but prior the next round of replication) have only one copy of each chromosome (i.e. sister chromosomes arent present). Mouse ES cells lack a G1 checkpoint and do not undergo cell cycle arrest upon acquiring DNA damage.[24] Rather they undergo programmed cell death (apoptosis) in response to DNA damage.[25] Apoptosis can be used as a fail-safe strategy to remove cells with un-repaired DNA damages in order to avoid mutation and progression to cancer.[26] Consistent with this strategy, mouse ES stem cells have a mutation frequency about 100-fold lower than that of isogenic mouse somatic cells.[27]

The major concern with the possible transplantation of ESC into patients as therapies is their ability to form tumors including teratoma.[28] Safety issues prompted the FDA to place a hold on the first ESC clinical trial (see below), however no tumors were observed.

The main strategy to enhance the safety of ESC for potential clinical use is to differentiate the ESC into specific cell types (e.g. neurons, muscle, liver cells) that have reduced or eliminated ability to cause tumors. Following differentiation, the cells are subjected to sorting by flow cytometry for further purification. ESC are predicted to be inherently safer than IPS cells because they are not genetically modified with genes such as c-Myc that are linked to cancer. Nonetheless, ESC express very high levels of the iPS inducing genes and these genes including Myc are essential for ESC self-renewal and pluripotency,[29] and potential strategies to improve safety by eliminating Myc expression are unlikely to preserve the cells’ “stemness”.

In 1964, Lewis Kleinsmith and G. Barry Pierce Jr. isolated a single type of cell from a teratocarcinoma, a tumor now known to be derived from a germ cell.[30] These cells isolated from the teratocarcinoma replicated and grew in cell culture as a stem cell and are now known as embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells.[31] Although similarities in morphology and differentiating potential (pluripotency) led to the use of EC cells as the in vitro model for early mouse development,[32] EC cells harbor genetic mutations and often abnormal karyotypes that accumulated during the development of the teratocarcinoma. These genetic aberrations further emphasized the need to be able to culture pluripotent cells directly from the inner cell mass.

In 1981, embryonic stem cells (ES cells) were independently first derived from mouse embryos by two groups. Martin Evans and Matthew Kaufman from the Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge published first in July, revealing a new technique for culturing the mouse embryos in the uterus to allow for an increase in cell number, allowing for the derivation of ES cells from these embryos.[33]Gail R. Martin, from the Department of Anatomy, University of California, San Francisco, published her paper in December and coined the term Embryonic Stem Cell.[34] She showed that embryos could be cultured in vitro and that ES cells could be derived from these embryos. In 1998, a breakthrough occurred when researchers, led by James Thomson at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, first developed a technique to isolate and grow human embryonic stem cells in cell culture.[35]

On January 23, 2009, Phase I clinical trials for transplantation of oligodendrocytes (a cell type of the brain and spinal cord) derived from human ES cells into spinal cord-injured individuals received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), marking it the world’s first human ES cell human trial.[36] The study leading to this scientific advancement was conducted by Hans Keirstead and colleagues at the University of California, Irvine and supported by Geron Corporation of Menlo Park, CA, founded by Michael D. West, PhD. A previous experiment had shown an improvement in locomotor recovery in spinal cord-injured rats after a 7-day delayed transplantation of human ES cells that had been pushed into an oligodendrocytic lineage.[37] The phase I clinical study was designed to enroll about eight to ten paraplegics who have had their injuries no longer than two weeks before the trial begins, since the cells must be injected before scar tissue is able to form. The researchers emphasized that the injections were not expected to fully cure the patients and restore all mobility. Based on the results of the rodent trials, researchers speculated that restoration of myelin sheathes and an increase in mobility might occur. This first trial was primarily designed to test the safety of these procedures and if everything went well, it was hoped that it would lead to future studies that involve people with more severe disabilities.[38] The trial was put on hold in August 2009 due to FDA concerns regarding a small number of microscopic cysts found in several treated rat models but the hold was lifted on July 30, 2010.[39]

In October 2010 researchers enrolled and administered ESTs to the first patient at Shepherd Center in Atlanta.[40] The makers of the stem cell therapy, Geron Corporation, estimated that it would take several months for the stem cells to replicate and for the GRNOPC1 therapy to be evaluated for success or failure.

In November 2011 Geron announced it was halting the trial and dropping out of stem cell research for financial reasons, but would continue to monitor existing patients, and was attempting to find a partner that could continue their research.[41] In 2013 BioTime (NYSEMKT:BTX), led by CEO Dr. Michael D. West, acquired all of Geron’s stem cell assets, with the stated intention of restarting Geron’s embryonic stem cell-based clinical trial for spinal cord injury research.[42]

BioTime company Asterias Biotherapeutics (NYSE MKT: AST) was granted a $14.3 million Strategic Partnership Award by the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) to re-initiate the worlds first embryonic stem cell-based human clinical trial, for spinal cord injury. Supported by California public funds, CIRM is the largest funder of stem cell-related research and development in the world.[43]

The award provides funding for Asterias to reinitiate clinical development of AST-OPC1 in subjects with spinal cord injury and to expand clinical testing of escalating doses in the target population intended for future pivotal trials.[44]

AST-OPC1 is a population of cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) that contains oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). OPCs and their mature derivatives called oligodendrocytes provide critical functional support for nerve cells in the spinal cord and brain. Asterias recently presented the results from phase 1 clinical trial testing of a low dose of AST-OPC1 in patients with neurologically-complete thoracic spinal cord injury. The results showed that AST-OPC1 was successfully delivered to the injured spinal cord site. Patients followed 2-3 years after AST-OPC1 administration showed no evidence of serious adverse events associated with the cells in detailed follow-up assessments including frequent neurological exams and MRIs. Immune monitoring of subjects through one year post-transplantation showed no evidence of antibody-based or cellular immune responses to AST-OPC1. In four of the five subjects, serial MRI scans performed throughout the 2-3 year follow-up period indicate that reduced spinal cord cavitation may have occurred and that AST-OPC1 may have had some positive effects in reducing spinal cord tissue deterioration. There was no unexpected neurological degeneration or improvement in the five subjects in the trial as evaluated by the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) exam.[45]

The Strategic Partnership III grant from CIRM will provide funding to Asterias to support the next clinical trial of AST-OPC1 in subjects with spinal cord injury, and for Asterias product development efforts to refine and scale manufacturing methods to support later-stage trials and eventually commercialization. CIRM funding will be conditional on FDA approval for the trial, completion of a definitive agreement between Asterias and CIRM, and Asterias continued progress toward the achievement of certain pre-defined project milestones.[46]

In vitro fertilization generates multiple embryos. The surplus of embryos is not clinically used or is unsuitable for implantation into the patient, and therefore may be donated by the donor with consent. Human embryonic stem cells can be derived from these donated embryos or additionally they can also be extracted from cloned embryos using a cell from a patient and a donated egg.[47] The inner cell mass (cells of interest), from the blastocyst stage of the embryo, is separated from the trophectoderm, the cells that would differentiate into extra-embryonic tissue. Immunosurgery, the process in which antibodies are bound to the trophectoderm and removed by another solution, and mechanical dissection are performed to achieve separation. The resulting inner cell mass cells are plated onto cells that will supply support. The inner cell mass cells attach and expand further to form a human embryonic cell line, which are undifferentiated. These cells are fed daily and are enzymatically or mechanically separated every four to seven days. For differentiation to occur, the human embryonic stem cell line is removed from the supporting cells to form embryoid bodies, is co-cultured with a serum containing necessary signals, or is grafted in a three-dimensional scaffold to result.[48]

Embryonic stem cells are derived from the inner cell mass of the early embryo, which are harvested from the donor mother animal. Martin Evans and Matthew Kaufman reported a technique that delays embryo implantation, allowing the inner cell mass to increase. This process includes removing the donor mother’s ovaries and dosing her with progesterone, changing the hormone environment, which causes the embryos to remain free in the uterus. After 46 days of this intrauterine culture, the embryos are harvested and grown in in vitro culture until the inner cell mass forms egg cylinder-like structures, which are dissociated into single cells, and plated on fibroblasts treated with mitomycin-c (to prevent fibroblast mitosis). Clonal cell lines are created by growing up a single cell. Evans and Kaufman showed that the cells grown out from these cultures could form teratomas and embryoid bodies, and differentiate in vitro, all of which indicating that the cells are pluripotent.[33]

Gail Martin derived and cultured her ES cells differently. She removed the embryos from the donor mother at approximately 76 hours after copulation and cultured them overnight in a medium containing serum. The following day, she removed the inner cell mass from the late blastocyst using microsurgery. The extracted inner cell mass was cultured on fibroblasts treated with mitomycin-c in a medium containing serum and conditioned by ES cells. After approximately one week, colonies of cells grew out. These cells grew in culture and demonstrated pluripotent characteristics, as demonstrated by the ability to form teratomas, differentiate in vitro, and form embryoid bodies. Martin referred to these cells as ES cells.[34]

It is now known that the feeder cells provide leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and serum provides bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) that are necessary to prevent ES cells from differentiating.[49][50] These factors are extremely important for the efficiency of deriving ES cells. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that different mouse strains have different efficiencies for isolating ES cells.[51] Current uses for mouse ES cells include the generation of transgenic mice, including knockout mice. For human treatment, there is a need for patient specific pluripotent cells. Generation of human ES cells is more difficult and faces ethical issues. So, in addition to human ES cell research, many groups are focused on the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells).[52]

On August 23, 2006, the online edition of Nature scientific journal published a letter by Dr. Robert Lanza (medical director of Advanced Cell Technology in Worcester, MA) stating that his team had found a way to extract embryonic stem cells without destroying the actual embryo.[53] This technical achievement would potentially enable scientists to work with new lines of embryonic stem cells derived using public funding in the USA, where federal funding was at the time limited to research using embryonic stem cell lines derived prior to August 2001. In March, 2009, the limitation was lifted.[54]

In 2007 it was shown that pluripotent stem cells highly similar to embryonic stem cells can be generated by the delivery of three genes (Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4) to differentiated cells.[55] The delivery of these genes “reprograms” differentiated cells into pluripotent stem cells, allowing for the generation of pluripotent stem cells without the embryo. Because ethical concerns regarding embryonic stem cells typically are about their derivation from terminated embryos, it is believed that reprogramming to these “induced pluripotent stem cells” (iPS cells) may be less controversial. Both human and mouse cells can be reprogrammed by this methodology, generating both human pluripotent stem cells and mouse pluripotent stem cells without an embryo.[56]

This may enable the generation of patient specific ES cell lines that could potentially be used for cell replacement therapies. In addition, this will allow the generation of ES cell lines from patients with a variety of genetic diseases and will provide invaluable models to study those diseases.

However, as a first indication that the induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) cell technology can in rapid succession lead to new cures, it was used by a research team headed by Rudolf Jaenisch of the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research in Cambridge, Massachusetts, to cure mice of sickle cell anemia, as reported by Science journal’s online edition on December 6, 2007.[57][58]

On January 16, 2008, a California-based company, Stemagen, announced that they had created the first mature cloned human embryos from single skin cells taken from adults. These embryos can be harvested for patient matching embryonic stem cells.[59]

The online edition of Nature Medicine published a study on January 24, 2005, which stated that the human embryonic stem cells available for federally funded research are contaminated with non-human molecules from the culture medium used to grow the cells.[60] It is a common technique to use mouse cells and other animal cells to maintain the pluripotency of actively dividing stem cells. The problem was discovered when non-human sialic acid in the growth medium was found to compromise the potential uses of the embryonic stem cells in humans, according to scientists at the University of California, San Diego.[61]

However, a study published in the online edition of Lancet Medical Journal on March 8, 2005 detailed information about a new stem cell line that was derived from human embryos under completely cell- and serum-free conditions. After more than 6 months of undifferentiated proliferation, these cells demonstrated the potential to form derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers both in vitro and in teratomas. These properties were also successfully maintained (for more than 30 passages) with the established stem cell lines.[62]

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Team Grows Heart Tissue on Spinach Leaves – Laboratory Equipment

Posted: at 7:43 pm

Researchers face a fundamental challenge as they seek to scale up human tissue regeneration from small lab samples to full-size tissues, bones, even whole organs to implant in people to treat disease or traumatic injuries: how to establish a vascular system that delivers blood deep into the developing tissue.

Current bioengineering techniques, including 3-D printing, cant fabricate the branching network of blood vessels down to the capillary scale that are required to deliver the oxygen, nutrients, and essential molecules required for proper tissue growth. To solve this problem, a multidisciplinary research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI), the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and Arkansas State University-Jonesboro have successfully turned to plants. They report their initial findings in the paperCrossing kingdoms: Using decelluralized plants as perfusable tissue engineering scaffoldspublished online in advance of the May 2017 issue of the journalBiomaterials.

Plants and animals exploit fundamentally different approaches to transporting fluids, chemicals, and macromolecules, yet there are surprising similarities in their vascular network structures, the authors wrote. The development of decellularized plants for scaffolding opens up the potential for a new branch of science that investigates the mimicry between plant and animal.

In a series of experiments, the team cultured beating human heart cells on spinach leaves that were stripped of plant cells. They flowed fluids and microbeads similar in size to human blood cells through the spinach vasculature, and they seeded the spinach veins with human cells that line blood vessels. These proof-of-concept studies open the door to using multiple spinach leaves to grow layers of healthy heart muscle to treat heart attack patients.

Other decellularized plants could provide the framework for a wide range of tissue engineering technologies. We have a lot more work to do, but so far this is very promising, said Glenn Gaudette, PhD, professor of biomedical engineering at WPI and corresponding author of the paper. Adapting abundant plants that farmers have been cultivating for thousands of years for use in tissue engineering could solve a host of problems limiting the field.

In addition to Gaudette, the WPI research team includes Tanja Dominko, PhD, DVM, associate professor of biology and biotechnology, who studies molecular mechanisms of human cell development; Pamela Weathers, PhD, professor of biology and biotechnology, a plant biologist; and Marsha Rolle, PhD, associate professor of biomedical engineering, who focuses on vasculature tissue engineering. The collaborative team also includes human stem cell and plant biology researchers at Wisconsin and Arkansas. This project speaks to the importance of interdisciplinary research, Gaudette said. When you have people with different expertise coming at a problem from different perspectives, novel solutions can emerge.

The papers first author is Joshua Gershlak, a graduate student in Gaudettes lab, who helped design and conduct the experiments, and who developed an effective process for removing plant cells from spinach leaves by flowing or perfusing a detergent solution through the leaves veins. I had done decellularization work on human hearts before,” Gershlak said, “and when I looked at the spinach leaf its stem reminded me of an aorta. So I thought, lets perfuse right through the stem. We werent sure it would work, but it turned out to be pretty easy and replicable. Its working in many other plants.

When the plant cells are washed away what remains is a framework made primarily of cellulose, a natural substance that is not harmful to people. Cellulose is biocompatible (and) has been used in a wide variety of regenerative medicine applications, such as cartilage tissue engineering, bone tissue engineering, and wound healing, the authors wrote.

In addition to spinach leaves, the team successfully removed cells from parsley, Artemesia annua (sweet wormwood), and peanut hairy roots. They expect the technique will work with many plant species that could be adapted for specialized tissue regeneration studies. The spinach leaf might be better suited for a highly vascularized tissue, like cardiac tissue, whereas the cylindrical hollow structure of the stem of Impatiens capensis (jewelweed) might better suit an arterial graft. Conversely, the vascular columns of wood might be useful in bone engineering due to their relative strength and geometries, the authors wrote.

Using plants as the basis for tissue engineering also has economic and environmental benefits. By exploiting the benign chemistry of plant tissue scaffolds, they wrote, we could address the many limitations and high costs of synthetic, complex composite materials. Plants can be easily grown using good agricultural practices and under controlled environments. By combining environmentally friendly plant tissue with perfusion-based decellularization, we have shown that there can be a sustainable solution for pre-vascularized tissue engineering scaffolds.

At WPI, the research continues along several lines, Gaudette said, with studies to optimize the decellularization process and further characterize how various human cell types grow while they are attached to, and are potentially nourished by, plant-based scaffolds. Also, engineering a secondary vascular network for the outflow of blood and fluids from human tissue will be explored. On April 7, 2017, Gershlak will present the technology and early results as an invited speaker at the National Academy of Inventors inaugural Student Innovation Showcase in Boston, where he will detail the work for more than 200 accomplished inventors and technology commercialization leaders.

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Biotechnology | FAO | Food and Agriculture Organization of …

Posted: at 7:42 pm

Agricultural biotechnologies are being applied to an increasing extent in crops, livestock, forestry, fisheries and aquaculture and agro-industries, to alleviate hunger and poverty, assist in adaptation to climate change and maintain the natural resource base.

They have not sufficiently benefited smallholder farmers and producers and consumers. More research and developmentof agricultural biotechnologies should be focused on the needs of smallholders.

In order to produce food in a sustainable way for an additional 2 billion people by 2050, a business-as-usual approach will not be sufficient.

This is especially true in the face of climate change and other forces threatening natural resources like biodiversity, land and water that are essential for food production and agriculture, including forestry and fisheries.

To meet these challenges, science and the application of biotechnologies as well as conventional technologies will play a key role.

FAO recognizes that when appropriately integrated with other technologies for the production of food, agricultural products and services, biotechnology can be of significant assistance in meeting the needs of an expanding and increasingly urbanized population. Regarding biotechnology, FAO assists its Member countries and their institutions by:

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Top 6 Everyday Products Using Biotechnology – The Merkle

Posted: at 7:42 pm

Biotechnology is a popular trend that can be found in various aspects of our everyday lives. While it is true biotechnology is a very complicated concept to grasp, it is also one of the most promising technologies to be found today. Biotechnology will help our society address some of its greatest challenges moving forward. Below are some very common use cases for biotechnology most people will have come in contact with already.

It is anything but surprising to learn biotechnology has made a big impact on the medical sector over the past few years. Biotechnology, or more specifically, bio-processing, is used to develop new pharmaceuticals which are often difficult to produce due to purity quality control requirements. Some of the more popular biotech pharmaceuticals include Remicade, Rituxan, Prevarn, and Avastin.

Very few consumers give fabrics a second thought, other than to determine whether the material would rub against the skin. Interestingly enough, most fabrics are dyed through a fermentation vat process. Biochemicals are very common in the production of dyes, polyester, and nylon. It is evident there is some form of biotechnology involved in every piece of synthetic clothing we wear today.

Even though biofuel is not as popular as it could be, the concept holds a lot of merit for the future. Biodiesel helps reduce the carbon impact, which is of great importance to the future of our species. To produce biofuel, one needs specific plant-derived sugars which are then fermented using biotechnology to create ethanol. Further advances in the development of biofuel will see the introducing of alternative compoundsto jet fuel.

It may come as a surprise to find out Goodyear Tire is actively exploring the boundaries of biotechnology. Through a partnership with Genencor, the company is researching synthetic rubber created out of mostly renewable raw materials. In doing so, the company hopes to replace the crude oil requirements necessary to produce a single passenger tie.

As unusual as it may sound, some of the foods we consume on a regular basis are a direct result of biotechnology. Most of the products usedin food and [soft] drinks are processed using biochemicals. Sweeteners, flavors and acidity regulators found in nearly every product are just a few examples of how biotechnology is affecting our daily lives. Even the packaging used by supermarkets is made of biochemicals.

It appears very few people are aware of what can be found in alcoholic beverages these days. The production process of alcohol is a clear example of industrial biotechnology. This process involves converting starch to sugar and fermenting the yeast. Both parts are biotechnology in its simplest form. There is a lot more to the beer in a bottle than meets the eye, that much is certain.

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PUMA BIOTECHNOLOGY, INC. (NASDAQ:PBYI) Files An 8-K Changes in Registrant’s Certifying Accountant – Market Exclusive

Posted: at 7:42 pm

PUMA BIOTECHNOLOGY, INC. (NASDAQ:PBYI) Files An 8-K Changes in Registrant's Certifying Accountant
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Puma Biotechnology, Inc. is a biopharmaceutical company that focuses on the development and commercialization of products for the treatment of cancer. The Company focuses on in-licensing the global development and commercialization rights to over …

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Symposium discusses latest and future of stem cell therapy – The Pasadena Star-News

Posted: at 7:41 pm

DUARTE>> Dozens of doctors, scientists, businesses and others gathered at City of Hope Thursday for the second California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM), Alpha Stem Cell Clinics symposium.

CIRM, the states stem cell agency, has developed a network of Alpha Stem Cell Clinics that focus on innovative stem cell-based therapies. The network of three clinics are located at City of Hope, University of California, San Diego, and UCLA/UC Irvine campuses.

The event served as a way for clinics to share their most recent advancements and successes in stem cell therapy clinical trials, and even hear directly from patients who benefited from some of the trials.

We want to review the trials, but we also want to see what other questions we should be asking, said Dr. John Zaia, the Aaron Miller and Edith Miller Chair in Gene Therapy, and director of the Center for Gene Therapy and principal investigator of City of Hopes Alpha Stem Cell Clinic. How will insurance companies charge or pay for these treatments? How do companies plan to develop these treatments? The symposium provides an opportunity to think about these other aspects.

There were also panel speakers who offered more of a motivational talk, such as Pat Furlong, founding president of Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy, discussing how to remove stakeholder barriers to stem cell therapy treatment.

Furlong had to become her and her sons own advocate when they were diagnosed with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy at a young age. She found there was no standard of care for the disease and no studies or trials in progress to find a treatment, let alone a cure.

Families just didnt know the questions to ask, she said. At the time, few people cared about rare diseases.

After years of no real hope and losing her sons at 15 and 17 years old, with her and her groups persistence, Furlong said there are now 40 companies researching the disease and millions of dollars have gone into research specifically for Duchenne.

City of Hopes Dr. Behnam Badie, chief of neurosurgery and director of the Brain Tumor Program, and Christine Brown, Ph.D., Heritage Provider Network Professor in Immunotherapy and associate director of the T Cell Therapeutics Research Laboratory, discussed their recent successful treatment of a patient with recurrent multifocal glioblastoma using CAR-T cell therapy.

The case study for this unique type of immunotherapy on the most aggressive form of brain cancer was published in the Dec. 29 edition of the New England Journal of Medicine.


In the Phase I clinical trial, the patient, who did not respond to other types of therapy including radiation and even developed tumors in his brain and spinal cord, was treated with his own genetically modified chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, injected directly into the tumor and through the ventricular system. The patient experienced remission over 8 months.

City of Hope is one of a few cancer centers in the nation offering studies in CAR-T cell therapy, and is the only cancer center investigating CAR-T cells targeting the specific receptors more common in a majority of glioblastomas.

Dr. Badie and Brown noted that working with CIRM has been instrumental in helping them along with their trial, and not just the funding.

You cant create a good trial without studying the product, said Brown. These are expensive trials. We have to treat these patients and understand what is going on.

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Erectile dysfunction: Stem cell therapy restores sexual function in phase I trial – Medical News Today

Posted: at 7:41 pm

Early results of a clinical trial suggest that stem cell therapy may be a promising treatment for erectile dysfunction, after the procedure was found to restore sexual function in men with the condition.

The stem cell therapy involves injecting the patients’ own stem cells – derived from abdominal fat cells – into the erectile tissue of the penis.

Lead researcher Dr. Martha Haahr, of Odense University Hospital in Denmark, and colleagues found that within 6 months of the procedure, 8 of the 21 men treated were able to engage in spontaneous sexual intercourse.

The researchers recently presented their findings at EAU17 – the European Association of Urology’s annual conference – held in London in the United Kingdom.

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a condition whereby a man has difficulties getting or maintaining an erection in order to engage in sexual intercourse.

According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Kidney Diseases, around 12 percent of men under the age of 60, and 22 percent of men aged between 60 and 69, have ED.

High blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease, chronic kidney disease, and prostate surgery are some of the physical conditions that can cause ED. Psychological issues – such as anxiety, stress, depression, and low self-esteem – can also contribute to ED.

Current treatments for ED include PDE5 inhibitors (such as Viagra), penile implants, and injections. However, Dr. Haahr and team note that all of these therapies can have significant side effects.

As a result, researchers are on the hunt for alternative treatments for ED, and stem cell therapy has emerged as a promising candidate in animal trials.

In their phase I trial, Dr. Haahr and colleagues tested stem cell therapy on 21 men who had ED as a result of undergoing radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. None of the men had responded to standard medical treatment for ED.

For the stem cell procedure, abdominal fat cells were extracted from each man through liposuction. Stem cells were then isolated from the fat cells and injected into the corpus cavernosum of the penis – the spongy tissue that normally becomes filled with blood during an erection.

Before the stem cell procedure and 6 and 12 months after, the participants’ erectile function was assessed using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire. An IIEF score of 5-7 represents severe erectile dysfunction, 12-16 is mild to moderate erectile dysfunction, and 22-25 is no erectile dysfunction.

All 21 men saw their erectile function improve with stem cell therapy: their IIEF score increased from 6 prior to treatment to 12 at 6 months after treatment.

Eight of the men reported that they had been able to engage in spontaneous sexual activity 6 months after stem cell therapy, and this outcome remained evident at 12 months after treatment. These men saw their IIEF score rise from 7 to 14 with stem cell therapy.

“What we have done establishes that this technique can lead to men recovering a spontaneous erection – in other words, without the use of other medicines, injections, or implants,” says Dr. Haahr.

Although the study findings are preliminary, the team says that they show promise for stem cell therapy as an effective treatment strategy for ED.

“We are the first to use a man’s own fat stem cells as a treatment for erectile dysfunction in a clinical trial. The technique has been trialed in animal work, but this is the first time stem cell therapy has allowed patients to recover sufficient erectile function to enable intercourse,” says Dr. Haahr.

“We are pleased with the preliminary outcomes, especially as these men had previously seen no effect from traditional medical treatment and continue to have good erectile function after 12 months follow-up, indicating that this might be a long-term solution.

This suggests the possibility of therapeutic options for patients suffering from erectile dysfunction from other causes. But we need to remember that this is a small trial, with no control group. We’re still some time away from a clinically available solution.”

Dr. Martha Haahr

The researchers are now in the process of initiating a phase II trial to further investigate the safety and efficacy of stem cell therapy for ED.

Learn how eating more fruits could help to lower the risk of ED.

Read more:
Erectile dysfunction: Stem cell therapy restores sexual function in phase I trial – Medical News Today

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