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Adipose vs. Bone Marrow Stem Cells in Loveland, CO

Posted: August 25, 2016 at 1:49 am

As more providers are offering stem cell options, more patients are becoming aware of the wonderful opportunities forhealing provided by stem cell injections. However, not all stem cells are equivalent. It is helpful to review a few pointsthat will help patients decide which type of stem cell therapy offers the best chance of achieving their particular healthgoal.

1) Autologus versus Allogenic

Stem cells are living cells that serve a particular purpose in the body. When injecting (transplanting) these cell into atreatment area, we are asking them to perform their usual function in an area of the body different from where theymay have been obtained.

Allogeneic stem cells are cells derived from a person other than the patient into whom they are being transplanted.These might be derived from bone marrow, placenta, fat or any other tissue of another individual that are thentransplanted into the patient. Given that we are asking living cells to perform their usual function, it is understandablethat they are sensitive to changes in their environment that can affect their comfort level. The greater the change inenvironment, the greater the challenge for cell survival and efficacy.

It is important to consider that an individual acting as a tissue donor for stem cell isolation most likely has a verydifferent physiologic milieu than the patient receiving the stem cells. The donors gender, dietary habits, hormonalstatus, exposure to environmental and dietary toxins may differ from the patients status. Thus, the cells beingintroduced into the patients body are not in familiar territory and are more likely to suffer stress and may not survive,let alone function well.

Hence, it seems natural that the most logical choice between Autologous or Allogenic should be Autologous, i.e. thepatients own cells for transplant.

2) Bone Marrow versus Adipose derived

Stem cells are born in the same fashion as other blood cells. Therefore, it is not surprising that they are born in bonemarrow where other blood cells are generated. It is also not surprising that bone marrow was one of the first placeswhere stem cells were first discovered as well as the source used by many in bench science and applied medicine forisolating stem cells. However, stem cells are only born in bone marrow that is not their final destination.

Stem cells are involved in the healing cascade that is required for repair of most bodily injuries that occur in the courseof normal life. That healing cascade seems to be stimulated by bleeding, which makes a whole lot of sense. There canbe very little injury to the body that does not induce bleeding. That is because there are small blood vessels throughoutour body, and mechanical injury should necessarily involve damage to these vessels. Blood, while it is in the vascularsystem, is a normal thing for the body blood outside of blood vessels is not: it indicates injury. And there appear to bea number of systems activated by bleeding, all of which lead to healing.

One of these is the response of platelets. Many have learned in High School Biology that platelets induce clotting when there is bleeding. As noted above, bleeding seems to be a signal in the body that indicates injury. So it is not surprisingthen that science has found that platelets ALSO release a host of growth factors when they are activated to form a bloodclot growth factors being signaling molecules that signal to other cells the need for healing processes to occur. Thesehealing processes lead to repair of damaged structures including bone, ligament, cartilage, skin and other tissues.

Stem cells, back to the subject at hand, are also part of this bleeding-induced healing process. Once born in bonemarrow, stem cells migrate out of the marrow and circulate in the blood, leaving the blood to take up their position aspericytes. Pericytes are cells that are located on the outside of blood vessels. They literally attach themselves to theoutsides of blood vessels, both small and large. These cells then wait for activation by processes that affect the bloodvessels including disruption/injury that leads to bleeding. When bleeding is induced, stem cells on adjacent/affectedblood vessels are activated. Once activated, their contribution to healing is that they will generate NEW CELLS of thesame type as the tissue that has been injured. They literally replace the damaged tissue with new cells as they performthis process.

It is not surprising to find that there are MANY small blood vessels in adipose, or fat tissue. This tissue is a storage organ.It requires blood vessels to transport fat to it from the body if there has been an excessive supply of nutrients in dietaryform for deposition as stored fat. It ALSO requires lots of blood vessels to supply fat for use if and when the bodyindicates a need for the fat that has been stored. Not surprisingly then, there are LOTS of small blood vessels in fat. Andall of these are lined with stem cells.

According to Stem Cell Scientist Kristin Komella, there are 500 times more stem cells available from the same amount offat as there are from bone marrow.But wait it gets better (in the case of adipose derived stem cells). As it turns out, not all stem cells act the same. Thereis a specific line of stem cells, CD34 cells that seem to be the most beneficial in terms of the healing in which mostpatients are interested. The proportion of those cells in adipose-derived stem cells is far higher than that in bonemarrow. Bottom line: not only are there 500 times more stem cells available from adipose as compared to bonemarrow, but there are vastly higher proportions of the most active stem cells in adipose derived stem cells as comparedto bone marrow derived.

Bottom line: autologous and adipose-derived stem cells would seem to be the obvious choice when considering stemcell transplant therapy.- Patrick Mallory DO

At Mallory Family Wellness, you are our priority. With advanced training in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine, we dont just treat the symptoms. We treat the whole person to address the root of the problem. And well work with you so you can prevent illness and remain healthy.

See for yourself why families from Loveland, Fort Collins, and the surrounding Northern Colorado communities, as well as Wyoming, North Dakota, South Dakota, Kansas, Nebraska, and Iowa, come to us. You can count on us to provide optimal care for your optimal health!

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Stem Cells in Mexico | Del Prado Stem Cell Center – Tijuana

Posted: at 1:49 am

At Del Prado Stem Cell Center we treat :Diabetes,Osteoarthritis,Parkinsons,Alzheimers disease,Dementia,Rheumatoid Arthritis,Chronic Obstructive disorder,Autoimmune Hepatitis,Macular Degeneration,Lupus,Multiple Sclerosis, Age Management,as well as sports injuries like Golfers, Pitchers and Tennis Elbow, Meniscus Tears, Achilles Tendonitis and more.

Del Prado Stem Cell Center is a bank of stem cells throughout Latin America that has formal recognition and certification of OSAC agency from the government of the United States as an institution that unites all requirements for international patients in stem cell therapy, thanks to the level of professionalism and safety handles, being the only institution in Mexico with that recognition by the United States government.

Treatment provided by Del Prado Stem Cell Center is performed atHospital Del Prado, Tijuanasleading health institutionwith 49 years of experience, offering personalized and humane service. We are very thorough inthe selection and performance ofourdoctors and offer nothing but the best treatment and facilities for Stem Cell Therapy treatment in Tijuana, Mexico.Adult Stem Cell Therapies are completely safe and non-invasive. StemCell therapy is evolvingour modern medical panorama were it can offer patients a completely new alternative to cure degenerative and terminal illnesses.

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Del Prado Stem Cell Center in Mexico

A procedure in which cells are taken from a donor (Mesenchymal Stem Cells) and administered to a patient.

Stem Cells in Mexico at Del Prado Hospital

For those patients who are eligible for stem cell disease treatment. Their Stem Cells can be obtained from their own fat tissue for later transplant.

Del Prado Medical Center Offering Stem Cell Therapy and Treatment in Tijuana Mexico

Hospital Del Prado is certified for Stem Cell treatment, certified specialists are on hand which have the training and follow adequate transplant protocol. In any case our specialists are on hand for an evaluation and if your disease has been approved we will immediately enter transplant protocol, which can begin right away in most cases, this is without need for Hospitalization for a prolonged period.

Del Parado Hospital in Tijuana Mexico

You are eligible as long as you have a preapproved illness or physical condition where stem cells have proved to be a clinical benefit in research

IMPORTANT NOTICE For Del Prado Stem Cell Center is very important to inform boththe medical community and society in general that stem cell therapyit may be unsuccessful in some cases or not recommended for all patients.Must never create false expectations without clinical and researchstudies to support the implementation of these treatments.So we suggest you talk to your doctor before receiving treatment.

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Hematologic Oncology Chicago, IL – MRMC | CTCA

Posted: at 1:48 am

“We are constantly looking for the best therapy for treating each patient and his or her particular disease. We monitor each patients treatment to see how he or she is responding to the treatment. Depending on how the patient responds, we may modify the treatment to find the one that optimizes that patients chances for eliminating the disease.”

-Dr. Istvan Redei, Chief, Division of Stem Cell Transplantation, Department of Medical Oncology

The Hematologic Oncology Department at Cancer Treatment Centers of America (CTCA) provides advanced medical therapies, including stem cell transplantation, for patients with blood-related diseases, including leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma.

Our hematologic oncology team has expertise in treating hematologic diseases using advanced technology and a personalized approach. We use state-of-the-art diagnostic tests to develop an individualized treatment plan that’s tailored to your needs.

A stem cell transplant can be used to infuse healthy stem cells into the body to stimulate new bone marrow growth, suppress the disease and reduce the possibility of a relapse. Stem cells can be found in the bone marrow, circulating blood (peripheral blood stem cells) and umbilical cord blood.

For patients who need a stem cell transplant, our Stem Cell Unit includes an outpatient clinic, infusion center and inpatient rooms. When you first visit the hospital, youll meet with the hematologic oncology team. Your doctor will review your medical records and determine if you need additional diagnostic testing, such as lab work or imaging tests.

Once youve completed any necessary testing, your doctor will present you with treatment options, which may include autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplants.

The hematologic oncology team will care for you throughout your treatment. Youll stay in one of our private, inpatient rooms and receive around-the-clock monitoring and care. We’ll do everything possible to see that you and your family are comfortable throughout your stay.

Recovery from treatments like stem cell transplantation can take several months. Our hematology oncology team will work with the rest of your care team to support you throughout the entire process.

For example, your dietitian may recommend a healthy diet to nutritionally fortify your body, and your naturopathic clincian may recommend natural therapies to help reduce side effects, such as neuropathy. Your rehabilitation therapist may recommend safe levels of physical activity to help you stay active and independent.

Additionally, your pain management practitioner may use various techniques to help alleviate discomfort and control bone and neuropathic pain, while your mind-body therapist may provide counseling and relaxation techniques.

Dr. Istvan Redei serves as Director of the Stem Cell Transplant and Cell Therapy Program at CTCA at Midwestern Regional Medical Center (Midwestern).

Dr. Redei and his team, including Dr. Syed Abutalib, are dedicated to fighting hematologic malignancies with advanced and innovative medicine. They use leading treatment protocols and think “outside the box” to provide promising options and individualized care for each patient.

We are constantly looking for the best therapy for treating each patient and his or her particular disease, says Dr. Redei. We monitor each patients treatment to see how he or she is responding to the treatment. Depending on how the patient responds, we may modify the treatment to find the one that optimizes that patients chances for eliminating the disease.

FACT accreditation

In 2014, Midwestern was recognized by theFoundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy (FACT) at the University of Nebraska Medical Center for demonstrating compliance with the FACT-JACIE International Standards for Cellular Therapy Product Collection, Processing and Administration.

FACT, an internationally recognized accrediting body for hospitals and medical institutions offering stem cell transplant, awarded Midwestern with the prestigious accreditation for meeting rigorous standards in a variety of stem cell therapies, including clinical care, donor management, cell collection, processing, storage, transportation, administration and cell release.

FACT accreditation is attained through evaluation of detailed clinical documentation and an on-site inspection to determine if an organization is in compliance with current FACT standards and the United States Food and Drug Administration’s rules for Good Tissue Practice. Since 2007, FACT accreditation has been used in determining the U.S. News & World Report rankings of transplant centers for the “America’s Best Hospitals” list.

Dr. Redei says, “Receiving FACT accreditation is a great honor and demonstrates to patients they are in good hands.”

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NativeBees | Nebraska Extension: Acreage Insights …

Posted: August 23, 2016 at 8:44 pm

March – Native Bees

Barb Ogg, University of Nebraska – Extension Educator, shares her knowledge and expertise on insects that often are pest problems. This month, with help from Mary Jane Frogge and Soni Cochran, UNL Extension, she describes an insect that we shouldn’t consider a pest.

Encouraging Native Bee Pollinators

In the US, about 4,000 species of native bee pollinators have been identified. Because most of these bees do not live in a hive or colony, they often are overlooked. These bees collect pollen from flowering plants to feed their offspring and, in doing so, pollinate the plants they visit. They are more important pollinators today than ever before.

Native bees range in size from about 1/8- to more than 1-inch long. Coloration varies from dark brown or black to metallic green or blue; they may have stripes of red, white, orange, or yellow. Their names often reflect their nest building behaviors: plasterer bees, leafcutter bees, mason bees, digger bees, and carpenter bees.

Lifestyles. Bees can be divided into two groups by their lifestyles: solitary or social. The stereotypical image of a bee is one living in a hive, but only a few species of bees are social. Social bees share a nest and divide the work of building the nest, caring for the offspring, and foraging for pollen and nectar. The primary social bees are the honey bee (not native to the US) and the bumble bees (about 45 species in the US).

In contrast, most native pollinating bees – nearly 4,000 species in the U.S. – are solitary nesting bees. Each female creates and provisions her own nest, without cooperation with other bees. Although they may nest together in large numbers, the bees are only sharing a good nesting site. The photo to the left is of a leaf cutter bee that emerged from a stack of brood cells that were brought to the Lancaster County extension office last summer. The bee is about the same width as the brood cells. Females that emerge will find a deep hole about the width of their body, form a brood cell with a cut leaf circle and pack the cell with a pollen ball. After she lays an egg on the pollen ball, she seals off each cell and makes a new one.

Solitary bees are either stingless or very unlikely to sting.

Life Cycles Solitary bees. The life cycle of a solitary bee consists of four stages: egg, larva, pupa and adult. Adult bees build a brood cell, then collect pollen and form a pollen ball. The female lays an egg on the pollen ball and seals off the cell. The egg, which resembles a tiny white sausage, incubates for 1-3 weeks, then hatches into a white, soft-bodied, grub-like larva. The larva feeds on the pollen ball left in the cell by the mother bee. After feeding and growing quickly, the larva changes into a pupa. Within the pupal stage – which may last many months – the larva transforms into its adult bee form. When the adult bee emerges, it is ready to feed, mate, and continue the cycle.

About 30 percent of native bee species are wood-nesters. These species use the soft pithy centers of twigs or reeds, or holes in wood tunneled by wood-boring beetles. In the case of carpenter bees, the bees themselves create the tunnel in wood. Some other bee species tunnel into soft, above-ground rotting logs and stumps.

The other 70% of native bees nest underground. These bees tunnel into the soil and create small chambers – brood cells – under the surface.

Social bees. Bumble bees are important pollinators and are only native bees which are truly social. They live in colonies, share the work, and have overlapping generations throughout the spring, summer, and fall. However, unlike the non-native honey bee – which survives through the winter – the bumble bee colony is seasonal. At the end of the summer only the fertilized queens survive to hibernate through the winter. In the spring, she does not use the nest she grew up in, but searches for a new nest.

Bumble bees usually nest in the soil – an abandoned rodent burrow is a favorite location. The queen creates the first few brood cells out of wax she produces, and then provisions these cells with pollen and nectar and lays eggs. Bumble bees differ from solitary bees when feeding their larvae. They provide food gradually, adding it to the brood cells as the larvae need it – called progressive provisioning – rather than leaving all the food in the cell before laying the egg. In addition, bumble bees make a small amount of honey, just enough to feed the colony for a few days during bad weather.

It takes about a month for the queen to raise the first brood. When they emerge, these bees become workers – foraging and tending the growing number of brood cells. The queen will continue to lay eggs, so the colony will grow steadily through the summer. At the end of summer, new queens and drones will emerge and mate. As temperatures drop, the old bees, including the old queen, will die, leaving only the new, mated queens to overwinter.

Increase Pollinators in Your Landscape.

Pollinators require somewhere to nest and flowers from which to gather nectar and pollen. Three things you can do to enhance pollinators in your garden are: provide a range of native flowering plants that bloom throughout the growing season, create nest sites for native bees, and avoid using pesticides.

Plants for Food.

You can increase the number of pollinators in your area with a few simple additions to your landscape. Native plants are the best source of food for native pollinators, because plants and their pollinators have co-evolved, but many varieties of garden plants are also good.

Plant flowers in groups or mass plantings to increase pollination efficiency. Consider the bloom season to provide food from early spring to late fall. Many herbs and annuals, although not native, are very good for pollinators. Mint, dill, oregano, chives, and parsley are a few herbs you can plant. Zinnia, cosmos, and sunflowers are excellent annual flowers that attract bees and butterflies. Even weeds like common milkweed can be a source of food for pollinators. Consider plants that are suitable for the larval stages of pollinators, like butterflies. Here’s a table of plants to consider for attracting native bees to your Nebraska acreage.

Wood-Nesting and Cavity Nesting Bees.

Nesting blocks. You can make a bee block by drilling nesting holes between 3/32″ and 3/8″ in diameter, at approximate 3/4″ centers, into the side of a block of preservative-free lumber. A variety of hole sizes will attract different-sized pollinators. The holes must be very smooth inside and closed at one end. The height of the nest block isn’t terribly important – 8″ or more is good – but the depth of the holes is. Holes less than 1/4″ diameter should be about 3 – 4″ deep. Holes 1/4″ or larger should be 5 – 6″ deep. Nesting blocks should be placed in the landscape early to make sure it is there when the bee needs it. If you have a bee-filled block from last year, don’t clean it out until after the bees have emerged. You might want to add a second clean block for this year’s brood, leaving the old one until all the bees are emerged.

Logs and snags. Get some logs or old stumps and place them in sunny areas. Those with beetle tunnels are ideal. Plant a few upright, like dead trees to ensure some deadwood habitat stays dry. On the southeast side of each log, drill a range of holes, as outlined above.

Stem or tube bundles. Some plants, like bamboo and reeds have naturally hollow stems. Cut the stems into 6-8″ lengths. Be careful to cut the stems close to a stem not to create a tube with one end closed. Fifteen to twenty stem pieces tied into a bundle with all the stem ends closed on the same end makes a good nest. You can also make a wooden frame to hold as many stems as you fit inside.

Nest Location. The location of the nest is important. Nests should be placed in a sheltered location to protect them against severe weather, with the entrance holes facing east or southeast to get morning sun. Any height will work, but 3-6 feet is convenient. With stem bundles, make sure the stems are horizontal. Place them on a building, fence, stake, or in a tree. Make sure you fix them firmly so they don’t shake in the wind.

Ground Nesting Bees. If you have a large acreage you may be able to provide bare or patchy soil for ground-nesting bees. Simply clear the vegetation from some small patches of level or sloping ground and gently compact the soil surface. A south-facing slope is good. Different ground conditions – from sloping banks to flat ground – will draw different bee species.

Water. A clean reliable source of water is essential for pollinators. Water features such as bird baths and small ponds provide drinking and bathing opportunities for pollinators. Water sources should be shallow or have sloping sides so pollinators can easily approach the water without drowning.

No Pesticides. To protect pollinators, pesticide use must be avoided. This can be difficult for gardeners who have well manicured landscapes. Here are some tips to help you ease into a pesticide-free environment. * For natural pest control provide a diverse garden habitat with a variety of plant sizes, heights and types to encourage beneficial insects. * Lower expectations and accept a little bit of pest activity. * Remove garden pests by hand.

Sources: The Xerces Society, a nonprofit organization that protects wildlife through the conservation of invertebrates and their habitat.

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Louisiana (Stem Cell) – what-when-how

Posted: at 8:43 pm

The state of Louisiana encourages the biotechnology industry, including adult stem cell research for economic development and scientific innovation. Growth in biotechnology and biomedicine for translating basic research into medical therapies is possible through appropriate legislation and funding, as well as strong collaborative networks for scientific research for industrial, academic, and clinical institutions throughout the state.

The Louisiana Alliance for Biotechnology provides networking opportunities between academic and commercial researchers to encourage economic growth and the transfer of basic research into commercially viable products. The Biomedi-cal Research Foundation of Northwest Louisiana promotes regional scientific growth and development in coordination with Louisiana State University Medical Center in Shreveport.

The foundation operates the Biomedical Research Institute and a Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Center for diagnosis and research in various fields, including immunology, neurological and cardiovascular cellular communication, signal transduction, and neu-rosciences. The foundations clinical application is performed by the Center for Biotechnology Innovation with a focus on research in energy, photonics, biogenetics, orthopedics, and medical informatics. The foundation is also developing a research and technology park called the International Technology Center to focus on biomedical healthcare delivery and biotechnology. This effort brings together nine of the academic institutions in north Louisiana

Louisiana is the only U.S. state to specifically prohibit research on human embryos.

The Louisiana Gene Therapy Research Consortium was established in 2000 with funds given by the state of Louisiana for enhancing economic growth and innovation by attracting researchers, building research laboratories, and producing gene and cell therapies to be used in human clinical trials.

At present, no federal legislation in the United States is in place to regulate stem cell research (except by executive order to not allow federal funding for generation of new embryonic stem cell lines and limiting research on embryonic stem cell lines); this leaves each state responsible for determining policy and funding for stem cell research. Louisiana is the only state to specifically prohibit research on human embryos and restricts human embryonic stem cell research.

For expansion of the biotech industry in Louisiana, the division of economic development has set up three centers within the state, in Baton Rouge, New Orleans, and Davenport, to provide financial assistance with a small business investment company fund, business development services, and wet laboratory incubator space. Their financial support has allowed the creation of a Good Manufacturing Practice Laboratory for stem cell research and funding for the Louisiana Cancer Research Centers of New Orleans and for the Gene Therapy Research Consortium. They also work with start-up companies to bring to the marketplace the application of research from Louisiana universities.

Pennington Biomedical Research Center at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge provides research laboratories and inpatient and outpatient medical clinics. The center opened in 1988 with funds provided by a philanthropic gift from C. B. Doc Pennington in 1980. The center is home to eight basic research laboratories, three clinical research units, 19 core service laboratories, and conference space.

The centers researchers specialize in a variety of disciplines including molecular biology, genom-ics and proteomics, and biochemistry. Though dedicated to nutrition and its related health issues, the centers research foci include tissue and organ regeneration postinjury/damage, characterization and biological mechanisms including formation of adult stem cells and adipose tissue, and the epigen-etic basis for human diseases of obesity, hypertension, and adult-onset diabetes.

Tulane University, in addition to providing education, is also a research university with active studies in biotechnology including vaccine and drug development, pain-control therapies, and gene therapy. Basic research is translated into clinical therapy and commercial products by the Office of Technology Development. In 2000 the university formed the Tulane Center for Gene Therapy with the goal of developing therapeutic treatment for a variety of human diseases, using adult stem cells through autologous donation and then turning them into therapy for osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, Parkinsons disease, spinal cord injury, stroke, and Alzheimers disease. The center also provides career development and community education, encouraging dialogue on social, legal, and ethical issues related to gene therapy. Funding for the center is provided through grant funding from national, state, and private sources, including the National Institutes of Health, the Louisiana Gene Therapy Research Consortium, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, Healthcare Company, and private foundations.

In addition to research, the center is a stem cell provider of human adult stem cells, rat stem cells, and mouse stem cells for researchers internationally, with a signed Tulane University Materials Transfer Agreement and handling fee. The center isolates, expands, and characterizes the stem cells in the laboratory and provides protocols for expansion as well as information on the cells.

The Louisiana State University is a public institution of higher learning, with majors in the physical sciences and with schools of medicine in New Orleans and Shreveport. The main campus of the university system is located in Baton Rouge, with campuses throughout the state. Research on stem cells includes survival of stem cells after freezing and their capability to proliferate and differentiate, developing technology in engineering stem cells in sheets or three-dimensional structures for transplant, and working with the Pennington Center to develop protocols for the cryopreser-vation of human adipose adult stem cells. Clinical research through the Gene Therapy Program at the Health Sciences Center at the School of Medicine in New Orleans includes translating the basic science of genetic involvement in disease into clinical therapy to prevent or treat some cancers or to restore function to diseased tissues or organs.

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Molecular imaging of stem cells | StemBook

Posted: at 8:42 pm

References Adonai, N. Nguyen, K.N. Walsh, J. Iyer, M. Toyokuni, T. Phelps, M.E. McCarthy, T. McCarthy, D.W. Gambhir, S.S. (2002). Ex vivo cell labeling with 64Cu-pyruvaldehyde-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) for imaging cell trafficking in mice with positron-emission tomography. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99, 30303035. Abstract Article Alvarez-Maya, I. Navarro-Quiroga, I. Meraz-Rios, M.A. Aceves, J. Martinez-Fong, D. (2001). In vivo gene transfer to dopamine neurons of rat substantia nigra via the high-affinity neurotensin receptor. Mol Med 7, 186192. Abstract Anversa, P. Leri, A. Kajstura, J. (2006). Cardiac regeneration. J Am Coll Cardiol 47, 17691776. Abstract Article Arbab, A.S. Bashaw, L.A. Miller, B.R. Jordan, E.K. Bulte, J.W. Frank, J.A. (2003). Intracytoplasmic tagging of cells with ferumoxides and transfection agent for cellular magnetic resonance imaging after cell transplantation: methods and techniques. Transplantation 76, 11231130. Abstract Article Askenasy, N. Zorina, T. Farkas, D.L. Shalit, I. (2002). Transplanted hematopoietic cells seed in clusters in recipient bone marrow in vivo. Stem Cells 20, 301310. Abstract Article Baizabal, J.M. Furlan-Magaril, M. Santa-Olalla, J. Covarrubias, L. (2003). Neural stem cells in development and regenerative medicine. Arch Med Res 34, 572588. Abstract Article Bengel, F.M. Anton, M. Richter, T. Simoes, M.V. Haubner, R. Henke, J. Erhardt, W. Reder, S. Lehner, T. Brandau, W. et al. (2003). Noninvasive imaging of transgene expression by use of positron emission tomography in a pig model of myocardial gene transfer. Circulation 108, 21272133. Abstract Article Bengel, F.M. Schachinger, V. Dimmeler, S. (2005). Cell-based therapies and imaging in cardiology. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 32(Suppl 2), S404416. Article Bindslev, L. Haack-Sorensen, M. Bisgaard, K. Kragh, L. Mortensen, S. Hesse, B. Kjaer, A. Kastrup, J. (2006). Labelling of human mesenchymal stem cells with indium-111 for SPECT imaging: effect on cell proliferation and differentiation. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 33, 11711177. Abstract Article

Bloor, C.M. White, F.C. Roth, D.M. (1992). The pig as a model of myocardial ischemia and gradual coronary artery occlusion. In Swine as models in biomedical research. Swindle, M. M. Moody, D. C. Phillips, L. D. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press; , 163175.

Kutschka, I. Chen, I.Y. Kofidis, T. Arai, T. von Degenfeld, G. Sheikh, A.Y. Hendry, S.L. Pearl, J. Hoyt, G. Sista, R. et al. (2006). Collagen matrices enhance survival of transplanted cardiomyoblasts and contribute to functional improvement of ischemic rat hearts. Circulation 114, I167173.

Kutschka, I. Kofidis, T. Chen, I.Y. von Degenfeld, G. Zwierzchoniewska, M. Hoyt, G. Arai, T. Lebl, D. R. Hendry, S. L. Sheikh, A. Y. et al. (2006). Adenoviral human BCL-2 transgene expression attenuates early donor cell death after cardiomyoblast transplantation into ischemic rat hearts. Circulation 114, I174180.

Li, Z. Wu, J.C. Sheikh, A.Y. Kraft, D. Cao, F. Xie, X. Patel, M. Gambhir, S.S. Robbins, R.C. Cooke, J.P. Wu, J.C. (2007). Differentiation, survival, and function of embryonic stem cell derived endothelial cells for ischemic heart disease. Circulation 116, I4654.

Wang, F. Dennis, J. E. Awadallah, A. Solchaga, L. A. Molter, J. Kuang, Y. Salem, N. Lin, Y. Tian, H. Kolthammer, J. A. et al. (2008). Transcriptional Profiling of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Transduced with Reporter Genes for Imaging. Physiol Genomics.

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Biotechnology Conferences | CPD Events| Biotechnology …

Posted: at 8:41 pm

Frontiers in Biotechnology

Biotechnology is an innovative science in which living systems and organisms are used to develop new and useful products, ranging from healthcare products to seeds. The field of Biotechnology is growing rapidly making tremendous impacts in Medical/Health Care, Food & Agriculture. The Global Biotechnology industry is in the growth phase of its economic life cycle. Over the five years to 2014, revenue and industry value added (IVA) growth have outpaced world GDP growth. The Frontiers in Biotechnology track will cover current technological aspects that aim at obtaining products with scientific, industrial, health and agricultural applications, from organisms with increasing levels of complexity from bacteria, yeast, plants, animal cells and virus. With the lectures and demonstrations on stem cell therapy, Embryo transfer technology, next generation sequencing, Drug discovery, biotechnology in food and dairy, etc… The participants are expected to acquire knowledge in techniques and methodologies used in Biotechnology.

Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

Pharmaceutical Biotechnology is the science that covers all technologies required for producing, manufacturing and registration of biological drugs.Pharmaceutical Biotechnologyis an increasingly important area of science and technology. It contributes in design and delivery of new therapeutic drugs,diagnosticagents for medical tests, and in gene therapy for correcting the medical symptoms of hereditary diseases. The Pharmaceutical Biotechnology is widely spread, ranging from many ethical issues to changes inhealthcarepracticesand a significant contribution to the development of national economy.Biopharmaceuticalsconsists of large biological molecules which areproteins. They target the underlying mechanisms and pathways of a disease or ailment; it is a relatively young industry. They can deal with targets in humans that are not accessible withtraditional medicines.

Related Conferences

11th World Congress onBiotechnology and Biotech Industries Meet, July 28-29, 2016, Berlin, Germany; 10thAsia Pacific Biotech CongressJuly 25-27, 2016, Bangkok, Thailand; 11thEuro Biotechnology Congress, November 07-09,2016, Alicante Spain; 13thBiotechnology Congress, Nov 28-30, 2016, San Francisco, USA;Global Biotechnology Congress2016, May 11th – 14th 2016, Boston, MA, USA;Biomarker Summit2016, March 21-23, 2016 San Diego, CA, USA; 14thVaccines Research & Development, July 7-8, Boston, USA;Pharmaceutical & BiotechPatent Litigation Forum, Mar 14 – 15, 2016, Amsterdam, Netherlands; 4thBiomarkers in Diagnostics, Oct 07-08, 2015 Berlin, Germany, DEU.

Medical Biotechnology

Medicine is by means of biotechnology techniques so much in diagnosing and treating dissimilar diseases. It also gives opportunity for the population to defend themselves from hazardous diseases. The pasture of biotechnology, genetic engineering, has introduced techniques like gene therapy, recombinant DNA technologyand polymerase chain retort which employ genes and DNA molecules to make adiagnosis diseasesand put in new and strong genes in the body which put back the injured cells. There are some applications of biotechnology which are live their part in the turf of medicine and giving good results.

Related Conferences

11th World Congress onBiotechnology and Biotech Industries Meet, July 28-29, 2016, Berlin, Germany; 10thAsia Pacific Biotech CongressJuly 25-27, 2016, Bangkok, Thailand; 11thEuro Biotechnology Congress, November 07-09,2016, Alicante Spain; 13thBiotechnology Congress, Nov 28-30, 2016, San Francisco, USA;Global Biotechnology Congress2016, May 11th – 14th 2016, Boston, MA, USA;Biomarker Summit2016, March 21-23, 2016 San Diego, CA, USA; 14thVaccines Research & Development, July 7-8, Boston, USA;Pharmaceutical & Biotech Patent Litigation Forum, Mar 14 – 15, 2016, Amsterdam, Netherlands; 4thBiomarkers in Diagnostics, Oct 07-08, 2015 Berlin, Germany, DEU.

Molecular Biotechnology

Molecular biotechnology is the use of laboratory techniques to study and modify nucleic acids and proteins for applications in areas such as human and animal health, agriculture, and the environment.Molecular biotechnologyresults from the convergence of many areas of research, such as molecular biology, microbiology, biochemistry, immunology, genetics, and cell biology. It is an exciting field fueled by the ability to transfer genetic information between organisms with the goal of understanding important biological processes or creating a useful product.

Related Conferences

11th World Congress onBiotechnology and Biotech IndustriesMeet, July 28-29, 2016, Berlin, Germany; 10thAsia Pacific Biotech CongressJuly 25-27, 2016, Bangkok, Thailand; 13thBiotechnology Congress, Nov 28-30, 2016, San Francisco, USA; GlobalBiotechnology Congress2016, May 11th-14th 2016, Boston, MA, USA;BIO Investor Forum, October 20-21, 2015, San Francisco, USA;BIO Latin America Conference, October 14-16, 2015, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil;Bio Pharm America 20158th Annual International Partnering Conference, September 15-17, 2015, Boston, MA, USA.

Environmental Biotechnology

The biotechnology is applied and used to study the natural environment. Environmental biotechnology could also imply that one try to harness biological process for commercial uses and exploitation. It is “the development, use and regulation of biological systems for remediation of contaminated environment and forenvironment-friendly processes(green manufacturing technologies and sustainable development). Environmental biotechnology can simply be described as “the optimal use of nature, in the form of plants, animals, bacteria, fungi and algae, to producerenewable energy, food and nutrients in a synergistic integrated cycle of profit making processes where the waste of each process becomes the feedstock for another process”.

Related Conferences

11th World Congress onBiotechnology and Biotech IndustriesMeet, July 28-29, 2016, Berlin, Germany; 10thAsia Pacific Biotech CongressJuly 25-27, 2016, Bangkok, Thailand; 11thEuro Biotechnology Congress, November 07-09,2016, Alicante Spain; 13thBiotechnology Congress, Nov 28-30, 2016, San Francisco, USA; GlobalBiotechnology Congress2016, May 11th – 14th 2016, Boston, MA, USA;Biomarker Summit2016, March 21-23, 2016 San Diego, CA, USA; 14thVaccines Research & Development, July 7-8, Boston, USA;Pharmaceutical & BiotechPatent Litigation Forum, Mar 14 – 15, 2016, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Animal Biotechnology

It improves the food we eat – meat, milk and eggs. Biotechnology can improve an animals impact on the environment. Animalbiotechnologyis the use of science and engineering to modify living organisms. The goal is to make products, to improve animals and to developmicroorganismsfor specific agricultural uses. It enhances the ability to detect, treat and prevent diseases, include creating transgenic animals (animals with one or more genes introduced by human intervention), using gene knock out technology to make animals with a specific inactivated gene and producing nearly identical animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer (or cloning).

Related Conferences

11th World Congress onBiotechnology and Biotech Industries Meet, July 28-29, 2016, Berlin, Germany; 10thAsia Pacific Biotech CongressJuly 25-27, 2016, Bangkok, Thailand; 11thEuro Biotechnology Congress, November 07-09,2016, Alicante Spain; 13thBiotechnology Congress, Nov 28-30, 2016, San Francisco, USA;Global Biotechnology Congress2016, May 11th – 14th 2016, Boston, MA, USA;Biomarker Summit2016, March 21-23, 2016 San Diego, CA, USA; 14thVaccines Research & Development, July 7-8, Boston, USA;Pharmaceutical & BiotechPatent Litigation Forum, Mar 14 – 15, 2016, Amsterdam, Netherlands; 4thBiomarkers in Diagnostics, Oct 07-08, 2015 Berlin, Germany, DEU.

Agricultural Biotechnology

Biotechnology is being used to address problems in all areas of agricultural production and processing. This includesplant breedingto raise and stabilize yields; to improve resistance to pests, diseases and abiotic stresses such as drought and cold; and to enhance the nutritional content of foods. Modern agricultural biotechnology improves crops in more targeted ways. The best known technique is genetic modification, but the term agricultural biotechnology (or green biotechnology) also covers such techniques asMarker Assisted Breeding, which increases the effectiveness of conventional breeding.

Related Conferences

3rd GlobalFood Safety Conference, September 01-03, 2016, Atlanta USA; 10thAsia Pacific Biotech CongressJuly 25-27, 2016, Bangkok, Thailand; 11thEuro Biotechnology Congress, November 07-09,2016, Alicante Spain; 12thBiotechnology Congress, Nov 14-15, 2016, San Francisco, USA;Biologically Active Compoundsin Food, October 15-16 2015 Lodz, Poland; World Conference onInnovative Animal Nutrition and Feeding, October 15-17, 2015 Budapest, Hungary; 18th International Conference onFood Science and Biotechnology, November 28 – 29, 2016, Istanbul, Turkey; 18th International Conference on Agricultural Science, Biotechnology,Food and Animal Science, January 7 – 8, 2016, Singapore; International IndonesiaSeafood and Meat, 1517 October 2016, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Industrial Biotechnology

Industrial biotechnology is the application of biotechnology for industrial purposes, includingindustrial fermentation. The practice of using cells such as micro-organisms, or components of cells like enzymes, to generate industrially useful products in sectors such as chemicals, food and feed, detergents, paper and pulp, textiles andbiofuels. Industrial Biotechnology offers a premier forum bridging basic research and R&D with later-stage commercialization for sustainable bio based industrial and environmental applications.

Related Conferences

11th World Congress onBiotechnology and Biotech Industries Meet, July 28-29, 2016, Berlin, Germany; 10thAsia Pacific Biotech CongressJuly 25-27, 2016, Bangkok, Thailand; 11thEuro Biotechnology Congress, November 07-09,2016, Alicante Spain; 13thBiotechnology Congress, Nov 28-30, 2016, San Francisco, USA; GlobalBiotechnology Congress2016, May 11th – 14th 2016, Boston, MA, USA;Biomarker Summit2016, March 21-23, 2016 San Diego, CA, USA; 14thVaccines Research & Development, July 7-8, Boston, USA;Pharmaceutical & BiotechPatent Litigation Forum, Mar 14 – 15, 2016, Amsterdam, Netherlands; 4thBiomarkers in Diagnostics, Oct 07-08, 2015 Berlin, Germany, DEU.

Microbial Biotechnology

Microorganisms have been exploited for their specific biochemical and physiological properties from the earliest times for baking, brewing, and food preservation and more recently for producingantibiotics, solvents, amino acids, feed supplements, and chemical feedstuffs. Over time, there has been continuous selection by scientists of special strains ofmicroorganisms, based on their efficiency to perform a desired function. Progress, however, has been slow, often difficult to explain, and hard to repeat. Recent developments inmolecular biologyand genetic engineering could provide novel solutions to long-standing problems. Over the past decade, scientists have developed the techniques to move a gene from one organism to another, based on discoveries of how cells store, duplicate, and transfer genetic information.

Related conferences

3rdGlobal Food Safety Conference, September 01-03, 2016, Atlanta USA; 10thAsia Pacific Biotech CongressJuly 25-27, 2016, Bangkok, Thailand; 11thEuro Biotechnology Congress, November 07-09,2016, Alicante Spain; 12thBiotechnology Congress, Nov 14-15, 2016, San Francisco, USA;Biologically Active Compoundsin Food, October 15-16 2015 Lodz, Poland; World Conference onInnovative Animal Nutrition and Feeding, October 15-17, 2015 Budapest, Hungary; 18th International Conference onFood Science and Biotechnology, November 28 – 29, 2016, Istanbul, Turkey; 18th International Conference on Agricultural Science, Biotechnology,Food and Animal Science, January 7 – 8, 2016, Singapore; International IndonesiaSeafood and Meat, 1517 October 2016, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Food Biotechnology

Food processing is a process by which non-palatable and easily perishable raw materials are converted to edible and potable foods and beverages, which have a longer shelf life. Biotechnology helps in improving the edibility, texture, and storage of the food; in preventing the attack of the food, mainly dairy, by the virus like bacteriophage producing antimicrobial effect to destroy the unwanted microorganisms in food that cause toxicity to prevent the formation and degradation of other toxins andanti-nutritionalelements present naturally in food.

Related Conferences

11th World Congress onBiotechnology and Biotech Industries Meet, July 28-29, 2016, Berlin, Germany; 10thAsia Pacific Biotech CongressJuly 25-27, 2016, Bangkok, Thailand; 13thBiotechnology Congress, Nov 28-30, 2016, San Francisco, USA;Global Biotechnology Congress 2016, May 11th-14th 2016, Boston, MA, USA;BIO Investor Forum, October 20-21, 2015, San Francisco, USA;BIO Latin America Conference, October 14-16, 2015, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil;Bio Pharm America 20158th Annual International Partnering Conference, September 15-17, 2015, Boston, MA, USA.

Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology

One kind of biotechnology is gene technology, sometimes called ‘genetic engineering’ or’genetic modification’, where the genetic material of living things is deliberately altered to enhance or remove a particular trait and allow the organism to perform new functions. Genes within a species can be modified, or genes can be moved from one species to another. Genetic engineering has applications inmedicine, research, agriculture and can be used on a wide range of plants, animals and microorganisms. It resulted in a series of medical products. The first two commercially prepared products from recombinant DNA technology were insulin andhuman growth hormone, both of which were cultured in the E. coli bacteria.

The field of molecular biology overlaps with biology and chemistry and in particular, genetics and biochemistry. A key area of molecular biology concerns understanding how various cellular systems interact in terms of the way DNA, RNA and protein synthesis function.

Related Conferences

11th World Congress onBiotechnology and Biotech Industries Meet, July 28-29, 2016, Berlin, Germany; 10thAsia Pacific Biotech CongressJuly 25-27, 2016, Bangkok, Thailand; 11thEuro Biotechnology Congress, November 07-09,2016, Alicante Spain; 13thBiotechnology Congress, Nov 28-30, 2016, San Francisco, USA;Global Biotechnology Congress2016, May 11th – 14th 2016, Boston, MA, USA;Biomarker Summit2016, March 21-23, 2016 San Diego, CA, USA; 14thVaccines Research & Development, July 7-8, Boston, USA;Pharmaceutical & BiotechPatent Litigation Forum, Mar 14 – 15, 2016, Amsterdam, Netherlands; 4thBiomarkers in Diagnostics, Oct 07-08, 2015 Berlin, Germany, DEU.

Biotechnology Investor & partnering Forum

The Biotech Investor & Partnering Forum is one of the unique conclave focused on the management and economics of biotechnology which became so important as the field is growing on a fast paced. From agriculture and environment sectors to pharmaceutical and healthcare products and services, the industries and institutions emerging from the biotech revolution Bio-Based Economy represent one of the largest and most steadily growing building blocks of the Global economy. The social impact is overwhelming, generating tremendous progress in quality of life but also difficult issues that needs responsible management based on consumer & bio-industry perspective, solid ethical principles, growing intellectual property rights complexity, long drug development times, Bio security, unusual market structures and highly unpredictable outcomes are just some of the challenges facing biotechnology management today.

Related Conferences

11th World Congress onBiotechnology and Biotech Industries Meet, July 28-29, 2016, Berlin, Germany; 10thAsia Pacific Biotech CongressJuly 25-27, 2016, Bangkok, Thailand; 11thEuro Biotechnology Congress, November 07-09,2016, Alicante Spain; 13thBiotechnology Congress, Nov 28-30, 2016, San Francisco, USA;Global Biotechnology Congress2016, May 11th – 14th 2016, Boston, MA, USA;Biomarker Summit2016, March 21-23, 2016 San Diego, CA, USA; 14thVaccines Research & Development, July 7-8, Boston, USA;Pharmaceutical & BiotechPatent Litigation Forum, Mar 14 – 15, 2016, Amsterdam, Netherlands; 4thBiomarkers in Diagnostics, Oct 07-08, 2015 Berlin, Germany, DEU.

Nano Biotechnology

Nano biotechnology, bio nanotechnology, and Nano biology are terms that refer to the intersection of nanotechnology and biology. Bio nanotechnology and Nano biotechnology serve as blanket terms for various related technologies. The most important objectives that are frequently found inNano biologyinvolve applying Nano tools to relevantmedical/biologicalproblems and refining these applications. Developing new tools, such as peptide Nano sheets, for medical and biological purposes is another primary objective in nanotechnology.

Related Conferences

8thWorldMedicalNanotechnologyCongress& Expo during June 9-11, Dallas, USA; 6thGlobal Experts Meeting and Expo onNanomaterialsand Nanotechnology, April 21-23, 2016 ,Dubai, UAE; 12thNanotechnologyProductsExpo, Nov 10-12, 2016 at Melbourne, Australia; 5thInternationalConference onNanotekand Expo, November 16-18, 2015 at San Antonio, USA; 11thInternational Conference and Expo onNano scienceandMolecular Nanotechnology, September 26-28 2016, London, UK; 18thInternational Conference onNanotechnologyand Biotechnology, February 4 – 5, 2016 in Melbourne, Australia; 16thInternational Conference onNanotechnology, August 22-25, 2016 in Sendai, Japan; International Conference onNano scienceand Nanotechnology, 7-11 Feb 2016 in Canberra, Australia; 18thInternational Conference onNano scienceand Nanotechnology, February 15 – 16, 2016 in Istanbul, Turkey; InternationalNanotechnologyConference& Expo, April 4-6, 2016 in Baltimore, USA.

Animal biotechnology

Animal biotechnology is a branch of biotechnology in which molecular biology techniques are used to genetically engineer animals in order to improve their suitability for pharmaceutical, agricultural or industrial applications. Many animals also help by serving as models of disease. If an animal gets a disease that’s similar to humans, we can use that animal to test treatments. Animals are often used to help us understand how new drugs will work and whether or not they’ll be safe for humans and effective in treating disease.

Related conferences

11th World Congress onBiotechnology and Biotech IndustriesMeet, July 28-29, 2016, Berlin, Germany; 10thAsia Pacific Biotech CongressJuly 25-27, 2016, Bangkok, Thailand; 11thEuro Biotechnology Congress, November 07-09,2016, Alicante Spain; 12thBiotechnology Congress, Nov 14-15, 2016, San Francisco, USA;BIO IPCC Conference, Cary, North Carolina, USA; World Congress onIndustrial Biotechnology, April 17-20, 2016, San Diego, CA; 6thBio based Chemicals: Commercialization & Partnering, November 16-17, 2015, San Francisco, CA, USA; The European Forum forIndustrial Biotechnology and Bio economy, 27-29 October 2015, Brussels, Belgium; 4thBiotechnology World Congress, February 15th-18th, 2016, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; International Conference on Advances inBioprocess Engineering and Technology, 20th to 22nd January 2016,Kolkata, India; GlobalBiotechnology Congress2016, May 11th – 14th 2016, Boston, MA, USA

Biotechnology Applications

Biotechnology has application in four major industrial areas, including health care (medical), crop production and agriculture, nonfood (industrial) uses of crops and other products (e.g. biodegradable plastics, vegetable oil, biofuels), and environmental uses. AppliedMicrobiologyand Biotechnology focusses on prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells, relevant enzymes and proteins, applied genetics and molecular biotechnology,genomicsand proteomics, applied microbial and cell physiology, environmental biotechnology, process and products and more.

Related conferences

3rd GlobalFood Safety Conference, September 01-03, 2016, Atlanta USA; 10thAsia Pacific Biotech CongressJuly 25-27, 2016, Bangkok, Thailand; 11thEuro Biotechnology Congress, November 07-09,2016, Alicante Spain; 12thBiotechnology Congress, Nov 14-15, 2016, San Francisco, USA;Biologically Active Compoundsin Food, October 15-16 2015 Lodz, Poland; World Conference onInnovative Animal Nutrition and Feeding, October 15-17, 2015 Budapest, Hungary; 18th International Conference onFood Science and Biotechnology, November 28 – 29, 2016, Istanbul, Turkey; 18th International Conference on Agricultural Science, Biotechnology,Food and Animal Science, January 7 – 8, 2016, Singapore; International IndonesiaSeafood and Meat, 1517 October 2016, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Biotechnology Companies & Market Analysis

From agriculture to environmental science, biotechnology plays an important role in improving industry standards, services, and developing new products. Biotechnology involves the spectrum of life science-based research companies working ontransformative technologiesfor a wide range of industries. While agriculture, material science and environmental science are major areas of research, the largest impact is made in the field medicine. As a large player in the research and development of pharmaceuticals, the role ofbiotechnologyin the healthcare field is undeniable. From genetically analysis and manipulation to the formation of new drugs, many biotech firms are transforming into pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical leaders.

Related conferences

10thAsia Pacific Biotech CongressJuly 25-27, 2016, Bangkok; 11thEuroBiotechnologyCongress, November 7-9, 2016 Alicante, Spain; 11th World Congress onBiotechnology and Biotech IndustriesMeet, July 28-29, 2016, Berlin, Germany; 13thBiotechnologyCongress, November 28-30, 2016 San Francisco, USA; 10thAsia Pacific Biotech CongressJuly 25-27, 2016, Bangkok, UAE;BioInternational Convention, June 6-9, 2016 | San Francisco, CA;BiotechJapan, May 11-13, 2016, Tokyo, Japan;NANO BIOEXPO 2016, Jan. 27 – 29, 2016, Tokyo, Japan;ArabLabExpo2016, March 20-23, Dubai; 14thInternational exhibition for laboratory technology,chemical analysis, biotechnology and diagnostics, 12-14 Apr 2016, Moscow, Russia

Biotechnology Capital & Grants

Every new business needs some startup capital, for research, product development and production, permits and licensing and other overhead costs, in addition to what is needed to pay your staff, if you have any. Biotechnology products arise from successfulbiotechcompanies. These companies are built by talented individuals in possession of a scientific breakthrough that is translated into a product or service idea, which is ultimately brought into commercialization. At the heart of this effort is the biotech entrepreneur, who forms the company with a vision they believe will benefit the lives and health of countless individuals. Entrepreneurs start biotechnology companies for various reasons, but creatingrevolutionary productsand tools that impact the lives of potentially millions of people is one of the fundamental reasons why all entrepreneurs start biotechnology companies.

10thAsia Pacific Biotech CongressJuly 25-27, 2016, Bangkok; 11thEuroBiotechnologyCongress, November 7-9, 2016 Alicante, Spain; 11th World Congress onBiotechnology and Biotech IndustriesMeet, July 28-29, 2016, Berlin, Germany; 13thBiotechnologyCongress, November 28-30, 2016 San Francisco, USA; 10thAsia Pacific Biotech CongressJuly 25-27, 2016, Bangkok, UAE;BioInternational Convention, June 6-9, 2016 | San Francisco, CA;BiotechJapan, May 11-13, 2016, Tokyo, Japan;NANO BIOEXPO 2016, Jan. 27 – 29, 2016, Tokyo, Japan;ArabLabExpo2016, March 20-23, Dubai; 14thInternational exhibition for laboratory technology,chemical analysis, biotechnology and diagnostics, 12-14 Apr 2016, Moscow, Russia

Scope and Importance

From the simple facts of brewing beer and baking bread has emerged a field now known asBiotechnology. Over the ages the meaning of the word biotechnology has evolved along with our growing technical knowledge. Biotechnology began by using cultured microorganisms to create a variety of food and drinks, despite in early practitioners not even knowing the existence of microbial world. Today, biotechnology is still defined as many application of living organisms or bioprocesses to create new products. Although the underlying idea is unchanged, the use of genetic engineering and other modern scientific techniques has revolutionized the area.

The field of genetics, molecular biology, microbiology, and biochemistry are merging their respective discoveries into the expanding applied field of biotechnology, and advances are occurring at a record pace. Traditional biotechnology goes back thousands of years.

Modern biotechnology applies not only modern genetics but also advances in other sciences. However, there is a third revolution that is just emergingnanotechnology. The development of techniques to visualize and manipulate atoms individually or in small clusters is opening the way to an ever-finer analysis of living systems. Nanoscale techniques are now beginning to play significant roles in many area of biotechnology.

This raises the question of what exactly defines biotechnology. To this there is no real answer. Today, the application of modern genetics or other equivalent modern technology is usually seen as application of modern genetics or equivalent modern technology is usually seen as necessary for a process to count as biotechnology. Thus, the definition of biotechnology has become partly a matter of fashion. Therefore, to classical terms, (modern) biotechnology as resulting in a broaden manner from the merger of classical biotechnology with modern genetics, molecular biology, computer technology, and nanotechnology.

Biotech Congress 2017covers mostly all the allied areas of biotechnology which embraces both the basic sciences, technology and as well as its applications in research, industry and academia. This conference will promote global networking between researchers, institutions, investors, industries, policy makers and students. The conference varied topics in biotechnology like healthcare, environmental, animal, plant, marine, genetic engineering, industrial aspects, food science and bio process.

Through this conference we can get all the relevant information regarding how we can use the advances in the biotechnology for building a better tomorrow by reducing the environmental impacts.

Why Italy?

Rome is the capital of Italy; it is also the countrys largest and most populated comune and fourth-most populous city in the European Union. The Metropolitan City of Rome has a population of 4.3 million residents. The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of Tiber River. Vatican City is an independent country within the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states. Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at only around 753 BC; the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied cities in Europe. It is referred to as Roma Aeterna (The Eternal City) and Caput Mundi (Capital of the World), two central notions in ancient Roman culture. One of the most important city, Rome, was founded in 753 B.C. by Romulus.

The Apennine Mountains form its backbone and stretch from north to south, with the Tiber River cutting through them in central Italy. Along the northern border, the Alps serve as a natural boundary. The three major bodies of water surrounding Italy are the Adriatic Sea, the Ionian Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea. Ancient Rome is characterized by the seven hills and the Tiber River. The Tiber River flows from the Apennine Mountain, to the Tyrrhenian Sea.

Rome is a sprawling, cosmopolitan city with nearly 3,000 years of globally influential art, architecture and culture on display. In 2005, the city received 19.5 million global visitors, up of 22.1% from 2001. Rome ranked in 2014 as the 14thmos-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, and the most popular tourist attraction in Italy. Its historic center is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Monuments and museums such as the Vatican Museums and the Colosseum are among the worlds most visited tourist destinations with both locations receiving millions of tourists a year. Rome hosted the 1960 Summer Olympics and is the seat of United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).Rome is the city with the most monuments in the world.

The weather is fantastic in Rome in June, when the average temperature starts off at around 20C and gradually climbs up to 23C-24C as the month progresses.

Congress Highlights:

Biotech Congress 2017 emphasizes on:

Target Audience

CEO, Directors, Vice Presidents, Co-directors, Biotechnologists, Academicians, Biostatistician, Biotechnologists, Clinical Laboratory Scientist, Clinical Metabolomics Data Analyst, Clinicians, Commissioner of Health, Community health workers, CROs, Directors, Environmental Scientists, Food Scientists, Genetic Engineers, Health Economist, Health officials, Healthcare Analyst, Manager of Quality Assurance and Evaluation, Market Access Manager, Marketing Intelligence Associate, Master/PhD students, Medical professionals, Microbiologists, Pharmaceutical Scientists, Physicians, Plant Scientists, Postdoctoral Fellows, Public Health Officer, Public Health Policy Analyst, Research Associates, Research Coordinator, Research Data Analyst, Research Intern, Researchers and faculty, Scientific and Medical Information Assistant, Scientists, Food, Environmental & Plant Scientists, Clinicians, Professors, Health care industrialists, Post Doctorate Fellows, Brand Manufacturers of Consumer Products/ Managers, Pharmaceutical Scientists, Students.

Focusing areas to get more participations & Exhibitions

Why to attend?

Biotech Congress is a remarkable event which brings together a unique and international mix of Biotechnology Researchers, Industrial Biotechnologists, leading Universities and Research Institutions making the congress a perfect platform to share experience, foster collaboration across Industry and Academia, and evaluate emerging technologies across the globe.

Biotechnology in Europe

Only in March a market analysis by British researchers at the University of Cambridge had calculated a market potential of three billion euros for Europe.At present, such Crowd Investing platforms only have a market share of 6.5%, however, the growth forecasts are good. The biotech industry in Europe spends nearly $7.32 billion in R&D and $23.2 billion in revenue. Around 20% of the total marketed medicines, and as much as 50% of all drugs that are in the pipeline, are all healthcare biotech products. The European biotech industry provides employment to approximately 95,000 people. Biotechnology sector makes a substantial contribution to the fundamental EU policy objectives, such as job creation, economic growth, ageing society, public health, environmental protection and sustainable development.

Biotechnology in Italy

The Italian Biotechnology Report by Ernst&Young and Assobiotec, in cooperation with Farmindustria and Italian Trade Promotion Agency, shows that the Italian biotech companies are able to compete outstandingly on the international market, managing to grow despite continuing difficulties in the economic situation. With 394 companies, of which 248 pure biotech, Italy is third in Europe after Germany and the United Kingdom, for the number of pure biotech companies, with a growth trend (+2,5%) in clear contrast with that of the countries that occupy the top ranking positions. With 206 companies operating in the health-care field, the red biotech is the prevalent sector. Looking at the other sectors, 43 green biotech, 34 white biotech, 61 GPET (Genomics, Proteomics and Enabling Technologies) and 50 multi core companies are operating in Italy. 77% of the companies are small (less than 50 employees) and micro (less than 10 employees) enterprises, mainly located in Science and Technology Parks or Incubators. Total revenues in the biotech field amount to 7 billion Euros (+4%). Investments in R&D amount to 1,8 billion Euros (+8%), equal to 25% of total revenues. Italian biotech revenues contributes to 0,7% of GDP and the sector is being considered more and more often as a meta-sector, able to create value and employment and with significant effects on various fields, ranging from textiles to detergents, cosmetics, polymers, paper and animal feed, from paints to food, from treatment of waste to leather treatment, and many others. The future trends of Italian red biotech are connected to a further specialization in oncology, neurology and infectious diseases and to new achievements in the fields of Advanced Therapies and personalized medicine. The analysis of the Italian biotech pipeline shows 319 products for therapeutic use, of which 80 in the preclinical phase, 43 in Phase I, 98 in Phase II and 98 in Phase III. Plant genomics and traceability, preservation and safety of foods, as well as bioremediation and biomasses, are the most promising applications in the green & white fields.

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stem cell – Medical News Today

Posted: at 8:40 pm

knowledge center home stem cell research all about stem cells what are stem cells?

Stem cells are a class of undifferentiated cells that are able to differentiate into specialized cell types. Commonly, stem cells come from two main sources:

Both types are generally characterized by their potency, or potential to differentiate into different cell types (such as skin, muscle, bone, etc.).

Adult or somatic stem cells exist throughout the body after embryonic development and are found inside of different types of tissue. These stem cells have been found in tissues such as the brain, bone marrow, blood, blood vessels, skeletal muscles, skin, and the liver. They remain in a quiescent or non-dividing state for years until activated by disease or tissue injury.

Adult stem cells can divide or self-renew indefinitely, enabling them to generate a range of cell types from the originating organ or even regenerate the entire original organ. It is generally thought that adult stem cells are limited in their ability to differentiate based on their tissue of origin, but there is some evidence to suggest that they can differentiate to become other cell types.

Embryonic stem cells are derived from a four- or five-day-old human embryo that is in the blastocyst phase of development. The embryos are usually extras that have been created in IVF (in vitro fertilization) clinics where several eggs are fertilized in a test tube, but only one is implanted into a woman.

Sexual reproduction begins when a male’s sperm fertilizes a female’s ovum (egg) to form a single cell called a zygote. The single zygote cell then begins a series of divisions, forming 2, 4, 8, 16 cells, etc. After four to six days – before implantation in the uterus – this mass of cells is called a blastocyst. The blastocyst consists of an inner cell mass (embryoblast) and an outer cell mass (trophoblast). The outer cell mass becomes part of the placenta, and the inner cell mass is the group of cells that will differentiate to become all the structures of an adult organism. This latter mass is the source of embryonic stem cells – totipotent cells (cells with total potential to develop into any cell in the body).

In a normal pregnancy, the blastocyst stage continues until implantation of the embryo in the uterus, at which point the embryo is referred to as a fetus. This usually occurs by the end of the 10th week of gestation after all major organs of the body have been created.

However, when extracting embryonic stem cells, the blastocyst stage signals when to isolate stem cells by placing the “inner cell mass” of the blastocyst into a culture dish containing a nutrient-rich broth. Lacking the necessary stimulation to differentiate, they begin to divide and replicate while maintaining their ability to become any cell type in the human body. Eventually, these undifferentiated cells can be stimulated to create specialized cells.

Stem cells are either extracted from adult tissue or from a dividing zygote in a culture dish. Once extracted, scientists place the cells in a controlled culture that prohibits them from further specializing or differentiating but usually allows them to divide and replicate. The process of growing large numbers of embryonic stem cells has been easier than growing large numbers of adult stem cells, but progress is being made for both cell types.

Once stem cells have been allowed to divide and propagate in a controlled culture, the collection of healthy, dividing, and undifferentiated cells is called a stem cell line. These stem cell lines are subsequently managed and shared among researchers. Once under control, the stem cells can be stimulated to specialize as directed by a researcher – a process known as directed differentiation. Embryonic stem cells are able to differentiate into more cell types than adult stem cells.

Stem cells are categorized by their potential to differentiate into other types of cells. Embryonic stem cells are the most potent since they must become every type of cell in the body. The full classification includes:

Embryonic stem cells are considered pluripotent instead of totipotent because they do not have the ability to become part of the extra-embryonic membranes or the placenta.

A video on how stem cells work and develop.

Although there is not complete agreement among scientists of how to identify stem cells, most tests are based on making sure that stem cells are undifferentiated and capable of self-renewal. Tests are often conducted in the laboratory to check for these properties.

One way to identify stem cells in a lab, and the standard procedure for testing bone marrow or hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), is by transplanting one cell to save an individual without HSCs. If the stem cell produces new blood and immune cells, it demonstrates its potency.

Clonogenic assays (a laboratory procedure) can also be employed in vitro to test whether single cells can differentiate and self-renew. Researchers may also inspect cells under a microscope to see if they are healthy and undifferentiated or they may examine chromosomes.

To test whether human embryonic stem cells are pluripotent, scientists allow the cells to differentiate spontaneously in cell culture, manipulate the cells so they will differentiate to form specific cell types, or inject the cells into an immunosuppressed mouse to test for the formation of a teratoma (a benign tumor containing a mixture of differentiated cells).

Scientists and researchers are interested in stem cells for several reasons. Although stem cells do not serve any one function, many have the capacity to serve any function after they are instructed to specialize. Every cell in the body, for example, is derived from first few stem cells formed in the early stages of embryological development. Therefore, stem cells extracted from embryos can be induced to become any desired cell type. This property makes stem cells powerful enough to regenerate damaged tissue under the right conditions.

Tissue regeneration is probably the most important possible application of stem cell research. Currently, organs must be donated and transplanted, but the demand for organs far exceeds supply. Stem cells could potentially be used to grow a particular type of tissue or organ if directed to differentiate in a certain way. Stem cells that lie just beneath the skin, for example, have been used to engineer new skin tissue that can be grafted on to burn victims.

A team of researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital reported in PNAS Early Edition (July 2013 issue) that they were able to create blood vessels in laboratory mice using human stem cells.

The scientists extracted vascular precursor cells derived from human-induced pluripotent stem cells from one group of adults with type 1 diabetes as well as from another group of healthy adults. They were then implanted onto the surface of the brains of the mice.

Within two weeks of implanting the stem cells, networks of blood-perfused vessels had been formed – they lasted for 280 days. These new blood vessels were as good as the adjacent natural ones.

The authors explained that using stem cells to repair or regenerate blood vessels could eventually help treat human patients with cardiovascular and vascular diseases.

Additionally, replacement cells and tissues may be used to treat brain disease such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s by replenishing damaged tissue, bringing back the specialized brain cells that keep unneeded muscles from moving. Embryonic stem cells have recently been directed to differentiate into these types of cells, and so treatments are promising.

Healthy heart cells developed in a laboratory may one day be transplanted into patients with heart disease, repopulating the heart with healthy tissue. Similarly, people with type I diabetes may receive pancreatic cells to replace the insulin-producing cells that have been lost or destroyed by the patient’s own immune system. The only current therapy is a pancreatic transplant, and it is unlikely to occur due to a small supply of pancreases available for transplant.

Adult hematopoietic stem cells found in blood and bone marrow have been used for years to treat diseases such as leukemia, sickle cell anemia, and other immunodeficiencies. These cells are capable of producing all blood cell types, such as red blood cells that carry oxygen to white blood cells that fight disease. Difficulties arise in the extraction of these cells through the use of invasive bone marrow transplants. However hematopoietic stem cells have also been found in the umbilical cord and placenta. This has led some scientists to call for an umbilical cord blood bank to make these powerful cells more easily obtainable and to decrease the chances of a body’s rejecting therapy.

Another reason why stem cell research is being pursued is to develop new drugs. Scientists could measure a drug’s effect on healthy, normal tissue by testing the drug on tissue grown from stem cells rather than testing the drug on human volunteers.

The debates surrounding stem cell research primarily are driven by methods concerning embryonic stem cell research. It was only in 1998 that researchers from the University of Wisconsin-Madison extracted the first human embryonic stem cells that were able to be kept alive in the laboratory. The main critique of this research is that it required the destruction of a human blastocyst. That is, a fertilized egg was not given the chance to develop into a fully-developed human.

The core of this debate – similar to debates about abortion, for example – centers on the question, “When does life begin?” Many assert that life begins at conception, when the egg is fertilized. It is often argued that the embryo deserves the same status as any other full grown human. Therefore, destroying it (removing the blastocyst to extract stem cells) is akin to murder. Others, in contrast, have identified different points in gestational development that mark the beginning of life – after the development of certain organs or after a certain time period.

People also take issue with the creation of chimeras. A chimera is an organism that has both human and animal cells or tissues. Often in stem cell research, human cells are inserted into animals (like mice or rats) and allowed to develop. This creates the opportunity for researchers to see what happens when stem cells are implanted. Many people, however, object to the creation of an organism that is “part human”.

The stem cell debate has risen to the highest level of courts in several countries. Production of embryonic stem cell lines is illegal in Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, and Ireland, but permitted in Finland, Greece, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the UK. In the United States, it is not illegal to work with or create embryonic stem cell lines. However, the debate in the US is about funding, and it is in fact illegal for federal funds to be used to research stem cell lines that were created after August 2001.

Medical News Today is a leading resource for the latest headlines on stem cell research. So, check out our stem cell research news section. You can also sign up to our weekly or daily newsletters to ensure that you stay up-to-date with the latest news.

This stem cells information section was written by Peter Crosta for Medical News Today in September 2008 and was last updated on 19 July 2013. The contents may not be re-produced in any way without the permission of Medical News Today.

Disclaimer: This informational section on Medical News Today is regularly reviewed and updated, and provided for general information purposes only. The materials contained within this guide do not constitute medical or pharmaceutical advice, which should be sought from qualified medical and pharmaceutical advisers.

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Diabetes – Better Health Channel

Posted: at 8:40 pm

Diabetes is a chronic condition in which the levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood are too high. Blood glucose levels are normally regulated by the hormone insulin, which is made by the pancreas. Diabetes occurs when there is a problem with this hormone and how it works in the body.

Around 5.1 per cent of Australians aged 18 years or older have diabetes. The risk of diabetes increases with age, from 2.8 per cent in people aged 35 to 44, to 15.0 per cent in those aged 65 to 74. Aboriginal people have one of the highest rates of type 2 diabetes in the world.

The glucose in the bloodstream needs to move into body tissues so that cells can use it for energy. Excess glucose is also stored in the liver, or converted to fat and stored in other body tissues.

Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas, which is a gland located just below the stomach. Insulin opens the doors (the glucose channels) that let glucose move from the blood into the body cells. It also allows glucose to be stored in muscle, the liver and other tissues. This is part of a process known as glucose metabolism.

In diabetes, either the pancreas cant make insulin (type 1 diabetes), or the cells dont respond to the insulin properly (insulin resistance) and the pancreas produces inadequate insulin for the bodys increased needs (type 2 diabetes).

If the insulin cannot do its job, the glucose channels cannot open properly. Glucose builds up in the blood instead of getting into cells for energy. High blood glucose levels cause the health problems linked to diabetes, often referred to as complications.

The symptoms of ketoacidosis are:

If a person with type 1 diabetes skips a meal, exercises heavily or takes too much insulin, their blood sugar levels will fall. This can lead to hypoglycaemica. The symptoms include tremor, sweating, dizziness, hunger, headache and change in mood. This can be remedied with a quick boost of sugar (such as jellybeans or glucose tablets), then something more substantial such as fruit. A person with type 1 diabetes should have lollies on hand at all times, just in case.

Type 2 diabetes, the most common form of diabetes, affects 85 to 90 per cent of all people with diabetes. While it usually affects mature adults (over 40), younger people are also now being diagnosed in greater numbers as rates of overweight and obesity increase. Type 2 diabetes used to be called non-insulin dependent diabetes or mature onset diabetes.

Research shows that type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed with lifestyle changes. However, there is no cure.

Certain women are at increased risk of developing gestational diabetes. High risk groups include:

Gestational diabetes can be monitored and treated and, if well controlled, these risks are greatly reduced. The baby will not be born with diabetes.

In severe cases, a person may pass up to 30 litres of urine per day. Without treatment, diabetes insipidus can cause dehydration and, eventually, coma due to concentration of salts in the blood, particularly sodium.

The name of this condition is a bit misleading, since diabetes insipidus has nothing to do with diabetes caused by high blood sugar levels, apart from the symptoms of thirst and passing large volumes of urine. Depending on the cause, diabetes insipidus can be treated with medications, vasopressin replacement and a low-salt diet.

Management depends on the type of diabetes, but can include:

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Diabetes Facts & Information | Joslin Diabetes Center

Posted: at 8:40 pm

What is diabetes?

Diabetes is a disease in which the body is unable to properly use and store glucose (a form of sugar). Glucose backs up in the bloodstream causing ones blood glucose (sometimes referred to as blood sugar) to rise too high.

There are two major types of diabetes. In type 1 (fomerly called juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent) diabetes, the body completely stops producing any insulin, a hormone that enables the body to use glucose found in foods for energy. People with type 1 diabetes must take daily insulin injections to survive.This form of diabetes usually develops in children or young adults, but can occur at any age. Type 2 (formerly called adult-onset or non insulin-dependent) diabetes results when the body doesnt produce enough insulin and/or is unable to use insulin properly (insulin resistance).This form of diabetes usually occurs in people who are over 40, overweight, and have a family history of diabetes, although today it is increasingly occurring in younger people, particularly adolescents.

People with diabetes frequently experience certain symptoms. These include:

In some cases, there are no symptoms this happens at times with type 2 diabetes. In this case, people can live for months, even years without knowing they have the disease. This form of diabetes comes on so gradually that symptoms may not even be recognized.

Diabetes can occur in anyone. However, people who have close relatives with the disease are somewhat more likely to develop it. Other risk factors include obesity, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and physical inactivity. The risk of developing diabetes also increases as people grow older. People who are over 40 and overweight are more likely to develop diabetes, although the incidence of type 2 diabetes in adolescents is growing. Diabetes is more common among Native Americans, African Americans, Hispanic Americans and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders. Also, people who develop diabetes while pregnant (a condition called gestational diabetes) are more likely to develop full-blown diabetes later in life.

There are certain things that everyone who has diabetes, whether type 1 or type 2, needs to do to be healthy. They need to have a meal (eating) plan. They need to pay attention to how much physical activity they engage in, because physical activity can help the body use insulin better so it can convert glucose into energy for cells.Everyone with type 1 diabetes, and some people with type 2 diabetes, also need to take insulin injections. Some people with type 2 diabetes take pills called “oral agents” which help their bodies produce more insulin and/or use the insulin it is producing better.Some people with type 2 diabetes can manage their disease without medication by appropriate meal planning and adequate physical activity.

Everyone who has diabetes should be seen at least once every six months by a diabetes specialist (an endocrinologist or a diabetologist). He or she should also be seen periodically by other members of a diabetes treatment team, including a diabetes nurse educator, and a dietitian who will help develop a meal plan for the individual. Ideally, one should also see an exercise physiologist for help in developing a physical activity plan, and, perhaps, a social worker, psychologist or other mental health professional for help with the stresses and challenges of living with a chronic disease. Everyone who has diabetes should have regular eye exams (once a year) by an eye doctor expert in diabetes eye care to make sure that any eye problems associated with diabetes are caught early and treated before they become serious.

Also, people with diabetes need to learn how to monitor their blood glucose. Daily testing will help determine how well their meal plan, activity plan, and medication are working to keep blood glucose levels in a normal range.

Your healthcare team will encourage you to follow your meal plan and exercise program, use your medications and monitor your blood glucose regularly to keep your blood glucose in as normal a range as possible as much of the time as possible. Why is this so important? Because poorly managed diabetes can lead to a host of long-term complications among these are heart attacks, strokes, blindness, kidney failure, and blood vessel disease that may require an amputation, nerve damage, and impotence in men.

But happily, a nationwide study completed over a 10-year period showed that if people keep their blood glucose as close to normal as possible, they can reduce their risk of developing some of these complications by 50 percent or more.

Maybe someday. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes, yet we still do not understand it completely. Recent research does suggest, however, that there are some things one can do to prevent this form of diabetes.Studies show that lifestyle changes can prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes in those adults who are at high risk of getting the disease. Modest weight loss (5-10% of body weight) and modest physical activity (30 minutes a day) are recommended goals.

Find more information about diabetes in What You Need to Know about Diabetes A Short Guide available from the Joslin Online Store.

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